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A functional electrical stimulation system improves knee control in crouch gait.

Khamis S, Martikaro R, Wientroub S, Hemo Y, Hayek S - J Child Orthop (2015)

Bottom Line: To the best of our knowledge, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not been used to decrease the severity of crouch gait in CP subjects and assist in achieving lower limb extension.To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of FES to the quadriceps muscles in preventing crouch gait and achieving ankle plantar flexion, knee and hip extension at the stance phase.Further studies are needed in order to validate these results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Gait and Motion Analysis Laboratory, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman St., 64239, Tel Aviv, Israel, khamisam@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Crouch gait is a major sagittal plane deviation in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). It is defined as a combination of excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee and hip flexion throughout the stance phase. To the best of our knowledge, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not been used to decrease the severity of crouch gait in CP subjects and assist in achieving lower limb extension.

Purpose: To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of FES to the quadriceps muscles in preventing crouch gait and achieving ankle plantar flexion, knee and hip extension at the stance phase.

Methods: An 18-year-old boy diagnosed with CP diplegia [Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II] was evaluated. The NESS L300(®) Plus neuroprosthesis system provided electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. A three-dimensional gait analysis was performed using an eight-camera system measuring gait kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters while the subject walked shod only, with ground reaction ankle foot orthotics (GRAFOs) and using an FES device.

Results: Walking with the FES device showed an increase in the patient's knee extension at midstance and increased knee maximal extension at the stance phase. In addition, the patient was able to ascend and descend stairs with a "step-through" pattern immediately after adjusting the FES device.

Conclusions: This report suggests that FES to the quadriceps muscles may affect knee extension at stance and decrease crouch gait, depending on the adequate passive range of motion of the hip, knee extension, and plantar flexion. Further studies are needed in order to validate these results.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sagittal plane movements of the left and right knee at T3 compared to typically developed (TD) subjects’ data (gray line). Dotted line shod, dashed line ground reaction ankle foot orthotic (GRAFO), solid line functional electrical stimulation (FES)
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Fig2: Sagittal plane movements of the left and right knee at T3 compared to typically developed (TD) subjects’ data (gray line). Dotted line shod, dashed line ground reaction ankle foot orthotic (GRAFO), solid line functional electrical stimulation (FES)

Mentions: Tables 1, 2, and 3 summarize the kinematic results compared to typically developed (TD) subjects’ data recorded at the gait laboratory. Sagittal plane movement left and right knee at T3 are illustrated in Fig. 2.Table 1


A functional electrical stimulation system improves knee control in crouch gait.

Khamis S, Martikaro R, Wientroub S, Hemo Y, Hayek S - J Child Orthop (2015)

Sagittal plane movements of the left and right knee at T3 compared to typically developed (TD) subjects’ data (gray line). Dotted line shod, dashed line ground reaction ankle foot orthotic (GRAFO), solid line functional electrical stimulation (FES)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417739&req=5

Fig2: Sagittal plane movements of the left and right knee at T3 compared to typically developed (TD) subjects’ data (gray line). Dotted line shod, dashed line ground reaction ankle foot orthotic (GRAFO), solid line functional electrical stimulation (FES)
Mentions: Tables 1, 2, and 3 summarize the kinematic results compared to typically developed (TD) subjects’ data recorded at the gait laboratory. Sagittal plane movement left and right knee at T3 are illustrated in Fig. 2.Table 1

Bottom Line: To the best of our knowledge, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not been used to decrease the severity of crouch gait in CP subjects and assist in achieving lower limb extension.To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of FES to the quadriceps muscles in preventing crouch gait and achieving ankle plantar flexion, knee and hip extension at the stance phase.Further studies are needed in order to validate these results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Gait and Motion Analysis Laboratory, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman St., 64239, Tel Aviv, Israel, khamisam@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Crouch gait is a major sagittal plane deviation in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). It is defined as a combination of excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee and hip flexion throughout the stance phase. To the best of our knowledge, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not been used to decrease the severity of crouch gait in CP subjects and assist in achieving lower limb extension.

Purpose: To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of FES to the quadriceps muscles in preventing crouch gait and achieving ankle plantar flexion, knee and hip extension at the stance phase.

Methods: An 18-year-old boy diagnosed with CP diplegia [Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II] was evaluated. The NESS L300(®) Plus neuroprosthesis system provided electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. A three-dimensional gait analysis was performed using an eight-camera system measuring gait kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters while the subject walked shod only, with ground reaction ankle foot orthotics (GRAFOs) and using an FES device.

Results: Walking with the FES device showed an increase in the patient's knee extension at midstance and increased knee maximal extension at the stance phase. In addition, the patient was able to ascend and descend stairs with a "step-through" pattern immediately after adjusting the FES device.

Conclusions: This report suggests that FES to the quadriceps muscles may affect knee extension at stance and decrease crouch gait, depending on the adequate passive range of motion of the hip, knee extension, and plantar flexion. Further studies are needed in order to validate these results.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus