Limits...
Implication of fructans in health: immunomodulatory and antioxidant mechanisms.

Franco-Robles E, López MG - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule.The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease.In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Irapuato, Km 9.6 Libramiento Norte Carretera Irapuato-León, 36821 Irapuato, GTO, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that fructans, a soluble dietary fiber, are beneficial to human health and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some diseases. Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule. These carbohydrates may be straight or branched with varying degrees of polymerization. Additionally, fructans are resistant to hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic by-products that possess immunomodulatory activity. The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease. However, a more direct mechanism for fructan activity has recently been suggested; fructans may interact with immune cells in the intestinal lumen to modulate immune responses in the body. Fructans are currently being studied for their potential as "ROS scavengers" that benefit intestinal epithelial cells by improving their redox environment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Induction of an immune response through gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417592&req=5

fig2: Induction of an immune response through gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

Mentions: The consumption of prebiotics can modulate immune parameters in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), secondary lymphoid tissues, and peripheral circulation [70]. GALT functions to distinguish between harmful and innocuous agents and protects against infections while simultaneously avoiding the generation of hypersensitivity reactions to commensal bacteria and harmless antigens [71–73]. In inductive GALT, more structured and localized sites of antigen processing and presentation are distinguished in areas such as Peyer's patches (PPs), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), the appendix, and isolated lymph nodes. GALT also contains effector sites with more diffuse organization, containing previously activated and differentiated cells that performed effector functions (Figure 2). Joint activity of the inductive and effector sites generates a rich response in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and cellular immunity, with robust cytotoxic regulatory functions and memory at the level of the mucosa and serum [74]. The intestinal epithelium provides a physical barrier that separates the trillions of commensal bacteria in the intestinal lumen from the underlying lamina propria (LP) and the deeper intestinal layers. Microfold cells (M cells), B cells (especially IgA-producing plasma cells), T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) in the LP are located directly below the intestinal epithelium (Figure 2). M cells are part of the epithelial layer covering the PP and specialize in transporting antigens from the lumen to GALT [75].


Implication of fructans in health: immunomodulatory and antioxidant mechanisms.

Franco-Robles E, López MG - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Induction of an immune response through gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417592&req=5

fig2: Induction of an immune response through gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).
Mentions: The consumption of prebiotics can modulate immune parameters in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), secondary lymphoid tissues, and peripheral circulation [70]. GALT functions to distinguish between harmful and innocuous agents and protects against infections while simultaneously avoiding the generation of hypersensitivity reactions to commensal bacteria and harmless antigens [71–73]. In inductive GALT, more structured and localized sites of antigen processing and presentation are distinguished in areas such as Peyer's patches (PPs), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), the appendix, and isolated lymph nodes. GALT also contains effector sites with more diffuse organization, containing previously activated and differentiated cells that performed effector functions (Figure 2). Joint activity of the inductive and effector sites generates a rich response in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and cellular immunity, with robust cytotoxic regulatory functions and memory at the level of the mucosa and serum [74]. The intestinal epithelium provides a physical barrier that separates the trillions of commensal bacteria in the intestinal lumen from the underlying lamina propria (LP) and the deeper intestinal layers. Microfold cells (M cells), B cells (especially IgA-producing plasma cells), T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) in the LP are located directly below the intestinal epithelium (Figure 2). M cells are part of the epithelial layer covering the PP and specialize in transporting antigens from the lumen to GALT [75].

Bottom Line: Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule.The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease.In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Irapuato, Km 9.6 Libramiento Norte Carretera Irapuato-León, 36821 Irapuato, GTO, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that fructans, a soluble dietary fiber, are beneficial to human health and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some diseases. Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule. These carbohydrates may be straight or branched with varying degrees of polymerization. Additionally, fructans are resistant to hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic by-products that possess immunomodulatory activity. The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease. However, a more direct mechanism for fructan activity has recently been suggested; fructans may interact with immune cells in the intestinal lumen to modulate immune responses in the body. Fructans are currently being studied for their potential as "ROS scavengers" that benefit intestinal epithelial cells by improving their redox environment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus