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Implication of fructans in health: immunomodulatory and antioxidant mechanisms.

Franco-Robles E, López MG - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule.The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease.In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Irapuato, Km 9.6 Libramiento Norte Carretera Irapuato-León, 36821 Irapuato, GTO, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that fructans, a soluble dietary fiber, are beneficial to human health and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some diseases. Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule. These carbohydrates may be straight or branched with varying degrees of polymerization. Additionally, fructans are resistant to hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic by-products that possess immunomodulatory activity. The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease. However, a more direct mechanism for fructan activity has recently been suggested; fructans may interact with immune cells in the intestinal lumen to modulate immune responses in the body. Fructans are currently being studied for their potential as "ROS scavengers" that benefit intestinal epithelial cells by improving their redox environment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Structural comparison of the (a) inulin from Cichorium intybus and (b) agavin from Agave spp.
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fig1: Structural comparison of the (a) inulin from Cichorium intybus and (b) agavin from Agave spp.

Mentions: Fructans have been classified into 4 groups based on their structural bonds: inulin, levans, graminans, and neoseries fructans (inulin neoseries and levan neoseries mixture) [13]. Inulin is the simplest linear fructan, consisting of β(2→1)-linked fructose residues. Inulin is usually found in plants such as Cichorium intybus (15–20% fructans), Jerusalem artichoke (15–20% fructans), Helianthus tuberosus (15–20% fructans), and Dahlia variabilis (15–20% fructans) (Figure 1) [13–15]. Levan-type fructans (also called phleins in plants) can be found in grasses (Poaceae). Levan fructans contain a linear β(2→6)-linked fructose polymer and are found in big bluegrass (Poa secunda) [16, 17]. Graminan-type fructans consist of β(2→6)-linked fructose residues with β(2→1) branches or can consist of more complex structures in which neosugars are combined with branched fructan chains. These complex fructans are usually found in plants such as Avena sativa, Lolium sp., and Agave sp. (15–22% fructans) (Figure 1) [5, 18–20]. The inulin neoseries are linear (2-1)-linked β-d-fructosyl units linked to both C1 and C6 on the glucose moiety of the sucrose (Suc) molecule. This results in a fructan polymer with a fructose chain ((mF2-1F2-6G1-2F1-2Fn); F (fructose), G (glucose)) on both ends of the glucose molecule. These fructans are found in plants belonging to the Liliaceae family (e.g., onion and asparagus (10–15% fructans)) [15, 21]. The smallest inulin neoseries molecule is called neokestose. The levan neoseries consists of polymers with predominantly β(2→6)-linked fructosyl residues on either end of the glucose moiety of the sucrose molecule. These fructans are rare, although they have been found in a few plant species belonging to the Poales (e.g., oat) [18].


Implication of fructans in health: immunomodulatory and antioxidant mechanisms.

Franco-Robles E, López MG - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Structural comparison of the (a) inulin from Cichorium intybus and (b) agavin from Agave spp.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417592&req=5

fig1: Structural comparison of the (a) inulin from Cichorium intybus and (b) agavin from Agave spp.
Mentions: Fructans have been classified into 4 groups based on their structural bonds: inulin, levans, graminans, and neoseries fructans (inulin neoseries and levan neoseries mixture) [13]. Inulin is the simplest linear fructan, consisting of β(2→1)-linked fructose residues. Inulin is usually found in plants such as Cichorium intybus (15–20% fructans), Jerusalem artichoke (15–20% fructans), Helianthus tuberosus (15–20% fructans), and Dahlia variabilis (15–20% fructans) (Figure 1) [13–15]. Levan-type fructans (also called phleins in plants) can be found in grasses (Poaceae). Levan fructans contain a linear β(2→6)-linked fructose polymer and are found in big bluegrass (Poa secunda) [16, 17]. Graminan-type fructans consist of β(2→6)-linked fructose residues with β(2→1) branches or can consist of more complex structures in which neosugars are combined with branched fructan chains. These complex fructans are usually found in plants such as Avena sativa, Lolium sp., and Agave sp. (15–22% fructans) (Figure 1) [5, 18–20]. The inulin neoseries are linear (2-1)-linked β-d-fructosyl units linked to both C1 and C6 on the glucose moiety of the sucrose (Suc) molecule. This results in a fructan polymer with a fructose chain ((mF2-1F2-6G1-2F1-2Fn); F (fructose), G (glucose)) on both ends of the glucose molecule. These fructans are found in plants belonging to the Liliaceae family (e.g., onion and asparagus (10–15% fructans)) [15, 21]. The smallest inulin neoseries molecule is called neokestose. The levan neoseries consists of polymers with predominantly β(2→6)-linked fructosyl residues on either end of the glucose moiety of the sucrose molecule. These fructans are rare, although they have been found in a few plant species belonging to the Poales (e.g., oat) [18].

Bottom Line: Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule.The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease.In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Irapuato, Km 9.6 Libramiento Norte Carretera Irapuato-León, 36821 Irapuato, GTO, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that fructans, a soluble dietary fiber, are beneficial to human health and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some diseases. Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule. These carbohydrates may be straight or branched with varying degrees of polymerization. Additionally, fructans are resistant to hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic by-products that possess immunomodulatory activity. The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease. However, a more direct mechanism for fructan activity has recently been suggested; fructans may interact with immune cells in the intestinal lumen to modulate immune responses in the body. Fructans are currently being studied for their potential as "ROS scavengers" that benefit intestinal epithelial cells by improving their redox environment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease.

No MeSH data available.