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Low Fetal Weight is Directly Caused by Sequestration of Parasites and Indirectly by IL-17 and IL-10 Imbalance in the Placenta of Pregnant Mice with Malaria.

Fitri LE, Sardjono TW, Rahmah Z, Siswanto B, Handono K, Dachlan YP - Korean J. Parasitol. (2015)

Bottom Line: The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects.Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10.The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran Malang, East Java 65145, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
The sequestration of infected erythrocytes in the placenta can activate the syncytiotrophoblast to release cytokines that affect the micro-environment and influence the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to fetus. The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects. There is still no data of Th17 involvement in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. This study was conducted to reveal the influence of placental IL-17 and IL-10 levels on fetal weights in malaria placenta. Seventeen pregnant BALB/C mice were divided into control (8 pregnant mice) and treatment group (9 pregnant mice infected by Plasmodium berghei). Placental specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were examined to determine the level of cytoadherence by counting the infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space of placenta. Levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta were measured using ELISA. All fetuses were weighed by analytical balance. Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10. Cytoadherence also caused low fetal weight. The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10. It can be concluded that low fetal weight in placental malaria is directly caused by sequestration of the parasites and indirectly by the local imbalance of IL-17 and IL-10 levels.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Model hypothesis on the relationship between infection with Plasmodium berghei, cytoadherence, levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta, and fetal weight, illustrated by value path coefficients and R2.
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f6-kjp-53-2-189: Model hypothesis on the relationship between infection with Plasmodium berghei, cytoadherence, levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta, and fetal weight, illustrated by value path coefficients and R2.

Mentions: This study set a confidence interval of 95% or P=0.05, which means a significant result was obtained when a count value is t≥1.96. Statistical analysis showed that cytoadherence caused an increase in IL-17 level in the placenta (tcount=9.272 ≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=0.549; R2=0.301) and decrease of placenta IL-10 level (tcount=2.155≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.157; R2=0.080) (Fig. 6). Cytoadherence could also cause low fetal weight (tcount=2.893≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.178 R2=0.265). The increased level of placenta IL-17 caused low fetal weight (tcount=4.137≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.385; R2=0.265). Interestingly, low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placenta IL-10 (tcount=3.478 ≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.242; R2=0.265), and a high IL-17 resulted in a low placenta IL-10 (tcount=5.423≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.336; R2=0.080). It can be assumed that low fetal weight 26.5% was influenced by cytoadherence, IL-17, and IL-10 with cause effect mechanism model as shown in Fig. 6.


Low Fetal Weight is Directly Caused by Sequestration of Parasites and Indirectly by IL-17 and IL-10 Imbalance in the Placenta of Pregnant Mice with Malaria.

Fitri LE, Sardjono TW, Rahmah Z, Siswanto B, Handono K, Dachlan YP - Korean J. Parasitol. (2015)

Model hypothesis on the relationship between infection with Plasmodium berghei, cytoadherence, levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta, and fetal weight, illustrated by value path coefficients and R2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4416375&req=5

f6-kjp-53-2-189: Model hypothesis on the relationship between infection with Plasmodium berghei, cytoadherence, levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta, and fetal weight, illustrated by value path coefficients and R2.
Mentions: This study set a confidence interval of 95% or P=0.05, which means a significant result was obtained when a count value is t≥1.96. Statistical analysis showed that cytoadherence caused an increase in IL-17 level in the placenta (tcount=9.272 ≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=0.549; R2=0.301) and decrease of placenta IL-10 level (tcount=2.155≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.157; R2=0.080) (Fig. 6). Cytoadherence could also cause low fetal weight (tcount=2.893≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.178 R2=0.265). The increased level of placenta IL-17 caused low fetal weight (tcount=4.137≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.385; R2=0.265). Interestingly, low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placenta IL-10 (tcount=3.478 ≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.242; R2=0.265), and a high IL-17 resulted in a low placenta IL-10 (tcount=5.423≥ttable=1.96; path coefficients=-0.336; R2=0.080). It can be assumed that low fetal weight 26.5% was influenced by cytoadherence, IL-17, and IL-10 with cause effect mechanism model as shown in Fig. 6.

Bottom Line: The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects.Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10.The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran Malang, East Java 65145, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
The sequestration of infected erythrocytes in the placenta can activate the syncytiotrophoblast to release cytokines that affect the micro-environment and influence the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to fetus. The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects. There is still no data of Th17 involvement in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. This study was conducted to reveal the influence of placental IL-17 and IL-10 levels on fetal weights in malaria placenta. Seventeen pregnant BALB/C mice were divided into control (8 pregnant mice) and treatment group (9 pregnant mice infected by Plasmodium berghei). Placental specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were examined to determine the level of cytoadherence by counting the infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space of placenta. Levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta were measured using ELISA. All fetuses were weighed by analytical balance. Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10. Cytoadherence also caused low fetal weight. The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10. It can be concluded that low fetal weight in placental malaria is directly caused by sequestration of the parasites and indirectly by the local imbalance of IL-17 and IL-10 levels.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus