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Validation of Physical Activity Tracking via Android Smartphones Compared to ActiGraph Accelerometer: Laboratory-Based and Free-Living Validation Studies.

Hekler EB, Buman MP, Grieco L, Rosenberger M, Winter SJ, Haskell W, King AC - JMIR Mhealth Uhealth (2015)

Bottom Line: Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, P<.001) between the raw ActiGraph counts/minute and the phone's raw counts/minute and a strong correlation on minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ie, ρ=.67, P<.001).Results from Bland-Altman plots suggested close mean absolute estimates of sedentary (mean difference=-26 min/day of sedentary behavior) and MVPA (mean difference=-1.3 min/day of MVPA) although there was large variation.Overall, results suggest that an Android smartphone can provide comparable estimates of physical activity to an ActiGraph in both a laboratory-based and free-living context for estimating sedentary and MVPA and that different Android smartphones may reliably confer similar estimates.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Arizona State University, School of Nutrition and Health Promotion, Phoenix, AZ, United States. ehekler@asu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is increasing interest in using smartphones as stand-alone physical activity monitors via their built-in accelerometers, but there is presently limited data on the validity of this approach.

Objective: The purpose of this work was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 Android smartphones for measuring physical activity among midlife and older adults.

Methods: A laboratory (study 1) and a free-living (study 2) protocol were conducted. In study 1, individuals engaged in prescribed activities including sedentary (eg, sitting), light (sweeping), moderate (eg, walking 3 mph on a treadmill), and vigorous (eg, jogging 5 mph on a treadmill) activity over a 2-hour period wearing both an ActiGraph and 3 Android smartphones (ie, HTC MyTouch, Google Nexus One, and Motorola Cliq). In the free-living study, individuals engaged in usual daily activities over 7 days while wearing an Android smartphone (Google Nexus One) and an ActiGraph.

Results: Study 1 included 15 participants (age: mean 55.5, SD 6.6 years; women: 56%, 8/15). Correlations between the ActiGraph and the 3 phones were strong to very strong (ρ=.77-.82). Further, after excluding bicycling and standing, cut-point derived classifications of activities yielded a high percentage of activities classified correctly according to intensity level (eg, 78%-91% by phone) that were similar to the ActiGraph's percent correctly classified (ie, 91%). Study 2 included 23 participants (age: mean 57.0, SD 6.4 years; women: 74%, 17/23). Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, P<.001) between the raw ActiGraph counts/minute and the phone's raw counts/minute and a strong correlation on minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ie, ρ=.67, P<.001). Results from Bland-Altman plots suggested close mean absolute estimates of sedentary (mean difference=-26 min/day of sedentary behavior) and MVPA (mean difference=-1.3 min/day of MVPA) although there was large variation.

Conclusions: Overall, results suggest that an Android smartphone can provide comparable estimates of physical activity to an ActiGraph in both a laboratory-based and free-living context for estimating sedentary and MVPA and that different Android smartphones may reliably confer similar estimates.

No MeSH data available.


Phone to ActiGraph comparison across activities (laboratory study).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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figure1: Phone to ActiGraph comparison across activities (laboratory study).

Mentions: We chose to include 3 different Android smartphones to gauge the reliability and validity across manufacturers (ie, Motorola vs HTC) and within manufacturer by using different firmware versions of Android (ie, Nexus One vs MyTouch). After attaching the devices, participants were asked to engage in a series of activities while wearing the ActiGraph and the Android phones (see Figure 1 for a list of activities). Each activity was conducted for 5 minutes followed by a transition period to the next activity. The overall protocol lasted approximately 2 hours per participant. For some activities, particularly running on the treadmill at 5 mph, participants were given the option to opt out if they were not able to accomplish it safely.


Validation of Physical Activity Tracking via Android Smartphones Compared to ActiGraph Accelerometer: Laboratory-Based and Free-Living Validation Studies.

Hekler EB, Buman MP, Grieco L, Rosenberger M, Winter SJ, Haskell W, King AC - JMIR Mhealth Uhealth (2015)

Phone to ActiGraph comparison across activities (laboratory study).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414958&req=5

figure1: Phone to ActiGraph comparison across activities (laboratory study).
Mentions: We chose to include 3 different Android smartphones to gauge the reliability and validity across manufacturers (ie, Motorola vs HTC) and within manufacturer by using different firmware versions of Android (ie, Nexus One vs MyTouch). After attaching the devices, participants were asked to engage in a series of activities while wearing the ActiGraph and the Android phones (see Figure 1 for a list of activities). Each activity was conducted for 5 minutes followed by a transition period to the next activity. The overall protocol lasted approximately 2 hours per participant. For some activities, particularly running on the treadmill at 5 mph, participants were given the option to opt out if they were not able to accomplish it safely.

Bottom Line: Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, P<.001) between the raw ActiGraph counts/minute and the phone's raw counts/minute and a strong correlation on minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ie, ρ=.67, P<.001).Results from Bland-Altman plots suggested close mean absolute estimates of sedentary (mean difference=-26 min/day of sedentary behavior) and MVPA (mean difference=-1.3 min/day of MVPA) although there was large variation.Overall, results suggest that an Android smartphone can provide comparable estimates of physical activity to an ActiGraph in both a laboratory-based and free-living context for estimating sedentary and MVPA and that different Android smartphones may reliably confer similar estimates.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Arizona State University, School of Nutrition and Health Promotion, Phoenix, AZ, United States. ehekler@asu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is increasing interest in using smartphones as stand-alone physical activity monitors via their built-in accelerometers, but there is presently limited data on the validity of this approach.

Objective: The purpose of this work was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 Android smartphones for measuring physical activity among midlife and older adults.

Methods: A laboratory (study 1) and a free-living (study 2) protocol were conducted. In study 1, individuals engaged in prescribed activities including sedentary (eg, sitting), light (sweeping), moderate (eg, walking 3 mph on a treadmill), and vigorous (eg, jogging 5 mph on a treadmill) activity over a 2-hour period wearing both an ActiGraph and 3 Android smartphones (ie, HTC MyTouch, Google Nexus One, and Motorola Cliq). In the free-living study, individuals engaged in usual daily activities over 7 days while wearing an Android smartphone (Google Nexus One) and an ActiGraph.

Results: Study 1 included 15 participants (age: mean 55.5, SD 6.6 years; women: 56%, 8/15). Correlations between the ActiGraph and the 3 phones were strong to very strong (ρ=.77-.82). Further, after excluding bicycling and standing, cut-point derived classifications of activities yielded a high percentage of activities classified correctly according to intensity level (eg, 78%-91% by phone) that were similar to the ActiGraph's percent correctly classified (ie, 91%). Study 2 included 23 participants (age: mean 57.0, SD 6.4 years; women: 74%, 17/23). Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, P<.001) between the raw ActiGraph counts/minute and the phone's raw counts/minute and a strong correlation on minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ie, ρ=.67, P<.001). Results from Bland-Altman plots suggested close mean absolute estimates of sedentary (mean difference=-26 min/day of sedentary behavior) and MVPA (mean difference=-1.3 min/day of MVPA) although there was large variation.

Conclusions: Overall, results suggest that an Android smartphone can provide comparable estimates of physical activity to an ActiGraph in both a laboratory-based and free-living context for estimating sedentary and MVPA and that different Android smartphones may reliably confer similar estimates.

No MeSH data available.