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Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis.

Gehrke P, Tabellion A, Fischer C - J Adv Prosthodont (2015)

Bottom Line: The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure.Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing.Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Private Practice, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning.

Materials and methods: A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively.

Results: All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved.

Conclusion: The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example of spectra table of sample 1 (in atom percent): Among others contamination with titanium.
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Figure 3: Example of spectra table of sample 1 (in atom percent): Among others contamination with titanium.

Mentions: The chemical elements identified on the steam-cleaned abutment samples, both on the residual particles and/or roughnesses as well as on the smooth surfaces were registered. The elements primarily included aluminium (Al), boron (B), carbon (C), oxygen (O) and silicium (Si) in higher atomic percentages (up to more than 80 atom %) (Example Fig. 3). They occurred together with elements in single-digit or lower atomic percentages as e.g. with bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe), potassium (Ka), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S), silicium (Si) or titanium (Ti). In addition, astatine (At), a radioactive element, chrome (Cr), phosphorus (P), platinum (Pt) and zink (Zn) were also detected. The element hafnium (Hf) often occurred in combination with the element zirconium and therefore cannot necessarily be regarded as contamination. The same is valid for the element yttrium which is used for stabilising the tetragonal status of zirconium oxide (Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9, A-D). The zirconia particles themselves were detected due to the roughening procedure during the manufacturing process. Aluminium and hafnium are also ingredients of polishing paste and could have, consequently, originated from polishing procedures. While traces of sulphur seem to residue from cleaning processes during the main production and cleansing procedure of the CAD/CAM abutments, traces of chlorine indicate an insufficiently removed cleansing solution.


Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis.

Gehrke P, Tabellion A, Fischer C - J Adv Prosthodont (2015)

Example of spectra table of sample 1 (in atom percent): Among others contamination with titanium.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414946&req=5

Figure 3: Example of spectra table of sample 1 (in atom percent): Among others contamination with titanium.
Mentions: The chemical elements identified on the steam-cleaned abutment samples, both on the residual particles and/or roughnesses as well as on the smooth surfaces were registered. The elements primarily included aluminium (Al), boron (B), carbon (C), oxygen (O) and silicium (Si) in higher atomic percentages (up to more than 80 atom %) (Example Fig. 3). They occurred together with elements in single-digit or lower atomic percentages as e.g. with bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe), potassium (Ka), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S), silicium (Si) or titanium (Ti). In addition, astatine (At), a radioactive element, chrome (Cr), phosphorus (P), platinum (Pt) and zink (Zn) were also detected. The element hafnium (Hf) often occurred in combination with the element zirconium and therefore cannot necessarily be regarded as contamination. The same is valid for the element yttrium which is used for stabilising the tetragonal status of zirconium oxide (Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9, A-D). The zirconia particles themselves were detected due to the roughening procedure during the manufacturing process. Aluminium and hafnium are also ingredients of polishing paste and could have, consequently, originated from polishing procedures. While traces of sulphur seem to residue from cleaning processes during the main production and cleansing procedure of the CAD/CAM abutments, traces of chlorine indicate an insufficiently removed cleansing solution.

Bottom Line: The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure.Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing.Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Private Practice, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning.

Materials and methods: A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively.

Results: All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved.

Conclusion: The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus