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Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis.

Gehrke P, Tabellion A, Fischer C - J Adv Prosthodont (2015)

Bottom Line: The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure.Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing.Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Private Practice, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning.

Materials and methods: A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively.

Results: All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved.

Conclusion: The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Occlusal view of abutment samples on the respective master cast reveals differently pronounced emergence profiles and variously shaped abutment shoulders, despite mandatory abutment design (standardised wax-up of the abutment from try-in acrylic).
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Figure 2: Occlusal view of abutment samples on the respective master cast reveals differently pronounced emergence profiles and variously shaped abutment shoulders, despite mandatory abutment design (standardised wax-up of the abutment from try-in acrylic).

Mentions: The master cast of a clinical case in which the right maxillary first molar had been replaced by an implant restoration served as model of origin. The emergence profile of the peri-implant mucosa had been pre-conditioned by means of a temporary implant-supported single crown. Six replica of the master cast were fabricated from dental stone and adjusted by a parallelometer in order to align the planned implant analogs of the various manufacturers in the same vertical and horizontal position. This ensured identical fabrication conditions for the abutments, despite the different implant-abutment geometries of the implant analogs. After a central drilling of the implant position planned, the corresponding implant analog of the respective manufacturer was positioned and plaster-embedded. As a result, six master casts were fabricated with an identical implant-shoulder-to-emergence-profile ratio. A standardised wax-up of the abutments was fabricated from try-in acrylic (with six different implant-abutment geometries) to ensure the comparability of the abutment samples of the various CAM-systems on the different implant types (Fig. 2). The sample-design for the one and two-piece CAD/CAM abutments were identical in their outer geometry and designed to allow placement of the crown margin slightly below the mucosa, following its scalopped anatomy. In case of the two-piece hybrid abutments, the bonding surfaces of the titanium inserts and zircona sleeves were blasted (aluminium oxide particles 50 µm; 2 bar/0.25 MPa; 20 seconds; distance 10 mm) and cleansed with alcohol. Subsequently, the titanium inserts were wetted with a metal-primer solution (GC MetalPrimer II, GC EUROPE N.V, Leuven, Belgium), whereas a bonding material was applied on the basal sections of the CAD/CAM zirconia sleeves (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). All hybrid abutments were luted with a resin cement (Multilink Implant, Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH) following the manufacturer's specifications. Finally, removal of the bonding excess was performed as well as polishing of the bonding joint with silicone polishers and polishing paste according to a previously documented protocol.30


Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis.

Gehrke P, Tabellion A, Fischer C - J Adv Prosthodont (2015)

Occlusal view of abutment samples on the respective master cast reveals differently pronounced emergence profiles and variously shaped abutment shoulders, despite mandatory abutment design (standardised wax-up of the abutment from try-in acrylic).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414946&req=5

Figure 2: Occlusal view of abutment samples on the respective master cast reveals differently pronounced emergence profiles and variously shaped abutment shoulders, despite mandatory abutment design (standardised wax-up of the abutment from try-in acrylic).
Mentions: The master cast of a clinical case in which the right maxillary first molar had been replaced by an implant restoration served as model of origin. The emergence profile of the peri-implant mucosa had been pre-conditioned by means of a temporary implant-supported single crown. Six replica of the master cast were fabricated from dental stone and adjusted by a parallelometer in order to align the planned implant analogs of the various manufacturers in the same vertical and horizontal position. This ensured identical fabrication conditions for the abutments, despite the different implant-abutment geometries of the implant analogs. After a central drilling of the implant position planned, the corresponding implant analog of the respective manufacturer was positioned and plaster-embedded. As a result, six master casts were fabricated with an identical implant-shoulder-to-emergence-profile ratio. A standardised wax-up of the abutments was fabricated from try-in acrylic (with six different implant-abutment geometries) to ensure the comparability of the abutment samples of the various CAM-systems on the different implant types (Fig. 2). The sample-design for the one and two-piece CAD/CAM abutments were identical in their outer geometry and designed to allow placement of the crown margin slightly below the mucosa, following its scalopped anatomy. In case of the two-piece hybrid abutments, the bonding surfaces of the titanium inserts and zircona sleeves were blasted (aluminium oxide particles 50 µm; 2 bar/0.25 MPa; 20 seconds; distance 10 mm) and cleansed with alcohol. Subsequently, the titanium inserts were wetted with a metal-primer solution (GC MetalPrimer II, GC EUROPE N.V, Leuven, Belgium), whereas a bonding material was applied on the basal sections of the CAD/CAM zirconia sleeves (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). All hybrid abutments were luted with a resin cement (Multilink Implant, Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH) following the manufacturer's specifications. Finally, removal of the bonding excess was performed as well as polishing of the bonding joint with silicone polishers and polishing paste according to a previously documented protocol.30

Bottom Line: The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure.Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing.Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Private Practice, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning.

Materials and methods: A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively.

Results: All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved.

Conclusion: The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus