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Insights from the metagenome of an Acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

Johnson SS, Chevrette MG, Ehlmann BL, Benison KC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community.In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system.This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science, Technology, and International Affairs, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Taxonomic diversity of the sediment.Gray shading indicates the proportion of sequences that could not be assigned to a known phylum, class, or order.
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pone.0122869.g005: Taxonomic diversity of the sediment.Gray shading indicates the proportion of sequences that could not be assigned to a known phylum, class, or order.

Mentions: The microbial community of the sediment was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (145,398 reads), followed by Betaproteobacteria (40,832 reads), Alphaproteobacteria (38,899 reads), Deltaproteobacteria (11,978 reads), Actinobacteria (9,480 reads), and Archaea (7,524 reads), followed by a smaller number of Firmicutes (3,327 reads), Planctomycetes (2,103 reads), Deinococcus (2,008 reads), Bacteroidetes (1,890 reads), Acidobacteria (178 reads), and Cyanobacteria (14 reads) (Fig 5). For both the Archaea and Bacteria, 5% of the sequences could not be assigned to a known phylum. Of the Proteobacteria sequences, 29% could not be assigned to a known class; 30% of Gammaproteobacteria sequences, 18% of Betaproteobacteria sequences, and 14% of Alphaproteobacteria sequences could not be assigned to a known order.


Insights from the metagenome of an Acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

Johnson SS, Chevrette MG, Ehlmann BL, Benison KC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Taxonomic diversity of the sediment.Gray shading indicates the proportion of sequences that could not be assigned to a known phylum, class, or order.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414474&req=5

pone.0122869.g005: Taxonomic diversity of the sediment.Gray shading indicates the proportion of sequences that could not be assigned to a known phylum, class, or order.
Mentions: The microbial community of the sediment was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (145,398 reads), followed by Betaproteobacteria (40,832 reads), Alphaproteobacteria (38,899 reads), Deltaproteobacteria (11,978 reads), Actinobacteria (9,480 reads), and Archaea (7,524 reads), followed by a smaller number of Firmicutes (3,327 reads), Planctomycetes (2,103 reads), Deinococcus (2,008 reads), Bacteroidetes (1,890 reads), Acidobacteria (178 reads), and Cyanobacteria (14 reads) (Fig 5). For both the Archaea and Bacteria, 5% of the sequences could not be assigned to a known phylum. Of the Proteobacteria sequences, 29% could not be assigned to a known class; 30% of Gammaproteobacteria sequences, 18% of Betaproteobacteria sequences, and 14% of Alphaproteobacteria sequences could not be assigned to a known order.

Bottom Line: Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community.In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system.This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science, Technology, and International Affairs, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus