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Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery.

Lee S, Jin G, Jang JH - J Biol Eng (2014)

Bottom Line: As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios.Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency.This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 Korea.

ABSTRACT
The integration of gene delivery technologies with electrospun nanofibers is a versatile strategy to increase the potential of gene therapy as a key platform technology that can be readily utilized for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios. Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency. This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BMP-2 plasmid loaded electrospun scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (A)In vitro release curve of three groups of scaffolds [56], Copyright 2007. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (B) Radiographs of nude mice tibias after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation of scaffolds. Bone fragment without implantation of any scaffold is denoted as control and white arrows identify bone defects [82], Copyright 2009. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (Group A: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with naked DNA coated outside, Group B: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles coated outside, Group C: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated inside. The number indicates HAp contents in composite. X1: 0/100, X2: 5/95, X3: 10/90 (HAp/PLGA w/w%)).
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Fig6: BMP-2 plasmid loaded electrospun scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (A)In vitro release curve of three groups of scaffolds [56], Copyright 2007. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (B) Radiographs of nude mice tibias after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation of scaffolds. Bone fragment without implantation of any scaffold is denoted as control and white arrows identify bone defects [82], Copyright 2009. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (Group A: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with naked DNA coated outside, Group B: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles coated outside, Group C: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated inside. The number indicates HAp contents in composite. X1: 0/100, X2: 5/95, X3: 10/90 (HAp/PLGA w/w%)).

Mentions: In addition to the ability of electrospun fibers to precisely mimic bone ECM, these fibers have large surface-to-volume ratios, allowing vascularization across the newly produced tissues within fibrous structures; these features provide strong rationales for the use of nanofibers as a guide to regenerate bone tissues [101]. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a representative osteoinductive protein that plays an important role in directing the cellular processes that regenerate bone or cartilage [82]. Wang et al. fabricated electrospun scaffolds comprised of a PLGA/HAp composite; these scaffolds released plasmid DNA encoding for BMP-2 to promote bone tissue formation in vitro[56] and in vivo[82]. The sustained release of chitosan/DNA-BMP-2 complexes (Figure 6A) localized the BMP-2 expression at the region adjacent to the PLGA-HAp fibrous matrices. Consequently, the coordination of the release modes of the chitosan/DNA-BMP-2 complexes regulated both the transfection efficiencies and the cellular viabilities [56], ultimately resulting in improved healing of segmental bone defects in mouse tibias (Figure 6B) [82]. Additionally, the delivery of plasmid DNA encoding a transcription factor, which regulates the cascades for the expression of multiple endogenous genes or for intracellular signals, can act as a key tool to promote bone tissue formation. The PCL nanofiber-mediated delivery of liposomes programmed to up-regulate RUNX2, a factor that induces cellular differentiation into the osteoblast phenotype, increased the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs [77]. As previously mentioned, the electrospun fibers aided in the reduction of the aggregation of liposome-RUNX2 and the cellular toxicity, leading to improved delivery efficiencies and cellular differentiation. Eventually, orchestrating the osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation at injured sites will be a crucial factor to repair or form new bone tissues functionally, which is currently a critical challenge [102]. Thus, creating synergistic effects from multiple factors, including osteogenic factors (e.g., transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β or growth differentiation factor (GDF)), angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)), and inflammatory inhibitory factors, through coordination of the delivery modes of these factors from electrospun fibers would be the next challenge in bone tissue engineering. Additionally, many advanced electrospinning technologies capable of readily manipulating pore sizes, mechanical properties, and three-dimensional morphologies would be required to further improve the efficiency of bone tissue engineering [103].Figure 6


Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery.

Lee S, Jin G, Jang JH - J Biol Eng (2014)

BMP-2 plasmid loaded electrospun scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (A)In vitro release curve of three groups of scaffolds [56], Copyright 2007. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (B) Radiographs of nude mice tibias after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation of scaffolds. Bone fragment without implantation of any scaffold is denoted as control and white arrows identify bone defects [82], Copyright 2009. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (Group A: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with naked DNA coated outside, Group B: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles coated outside, Group C: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated inside. The number indicates HAp contents in composite. X1: 0/100, X2: 5/95, X3: 10/90 (HAp/PLGA w/w%)).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414388&req=5

Fig6: BMP-2 plasmid loaded electrospun scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (A)In vitro release curve of three groups of scaffolds [56], Copyright 2007. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (B) Radiographs of nude mice tibias after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation of scaffolds. Bone fragment without implantation of any scaffold is denoted as control and white arrows identify bone defects [82], Copyright 2009. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. (Group A: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with naked DNA coated outside, Group B: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles coated outside, Group C: PLGA/HAp composite fiber with DNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated inside. The number indicates HAp contents in composite. X1: 0/100, X2: 5/95, X3: 10/90 (HAp/PLGA w/w%)).
Mentions: In addition to the ability of electrospun fibers to precisely mimic bone ECM, these fibers have large surface-to-volume ratios, allowing vascularization across the newly produced tissues within fibrous structures; these features provide strong rationales for the use of nanofibers as a guide to regenerate bone tissues [101]. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a representative osteoinductive protein that plays an important role in directing the cellular processes that regenerate bone or cartilage [82]. Wang et al. fabricated electrospun scaffolds comprised of a PLGA/HAp composite; these scaffolds released plasmid DNA encoding for BMP-2 to promote bone tissue formation in vitro[56] and in vivo[82]. The sustained release of chitosan/DNA-BMP-2 complexes (Figure 6A) localized the BMP-2 expression at the region adjacent to the PLGA-HAp fibrous matrices. Consequently, the coordination of the release modes of the chitosan/DNA-BMP-2 complexes regulated both the transfection efficiencies and the cellular viabilities [56], ultimately resulting in improved healing of segmental bone defects in mouse tibias (Figure 6B) [82]. Additionally, the delivery of plasmid DNA encoding a transcription factor, which regulates the cascades for the expression of multiple endogenous genes or for intracellular signals, can act as a key tool to promote bone tissue formation. The PCL nanofiber-mediated delivery of liposomes programmed to up-regulate RUNX2, a factor that induces cellular differentiation into the osteoblast phenotype, increased the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs [77]. As previously mentioned, the electrospun fibers aided in the reduction of the aggregation of liposome-RUNX2 and the cellular toxicity, leading to improved delivery efficiencies and cellular differentiation. Eventually, orchestrating the osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation at injured sites will be a crucial factor to repair or form new bone tissues functionally, which is currently a critical challenge [102]. Thus, creating synergistic effects from multiple factors, including osteogenic factors (e.g., transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β or growth differentiation factor (GDF)), angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)), and inflammatory inhibitory factors, through coordination of the delivery modes of these factors from electrospun fibers would be the next challenge in bone tissue engineering. Additionally, many advanced electrospinning technologies capable of readily manipulating pore sizes, mechanical properties, and three-dimensional morphologies would be required to further improve the efficiency of bone tissue engineering [103].Figure 6

Bottom Line: As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios.Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency.This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 Korea.

ABSTRACT
The integration of gene delivery technologies with electrospun nanofibers is a versatile strategy to increase the potential of gene therapy as a key platform technology that can be readily utilized for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios. Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency. This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus