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Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery.

Lee S, Jin G, Jang JH - J Biol Eng (2014)

Bottom Line: As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios.Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency.This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 Korea.

ABSTRACT
The integration of gene delivery technologies with electrospun nanofibers is a versatile strategy to increase the potential of gene therapy as a key platform technology that can be readily utilized for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios. Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency. This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Core-sheath electrospun nanofibrous systems for controlled gene delivery. (A) Two representative methods to form core-sheath electrospun nanofibers: coaxial (left) and emulsion (right) electrospinning. (B) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of an individual core-sheath nanofiber fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. Core and sheath are composed of viruses dispersed in Minimal Essential Medium and PCL, respectively. Scale bar is 2 μm. Reprinted from [30], Copyright 2009, with permission from Elsevier. (C) A scheme depicting gene vector encapsulation within the core layer for controlled release. The core-sheath fibrous formulations contribute (D) to preventing the direct contact of gene vectors in the core layer with organic solvents in the sheath layer, (E) to regulating delivery modes by producing porous sheath layers, and (F) to enhancing delivery efficiencies by modifying the sheath layers with polycationic polymers.
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Fig3: Core-sheath electrospun nanofibrous systems for controlled gene delivery. (A) Two representative methods to form core-sheath electrospun nanofibers: coaxial (left) and emulsion (right) electrospinning. (B) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of an individual core-sheath nanofiber fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. Core and sheath are composed of viruses dispersed in Minimal Essential Medium and PCL, respectively. Scale bar is 2 μm. Reprinted from [30], Copyright 2009, with permission from Elsevier. (C) A scheme depicting gene vector encapsulation within the core layer for controlled release. The core-sheath fibrous formulations contribute (D) to preventing the direct contact of gene vectors in the core layer with organic solvents in the sheath layer, (E) to regulating delivery modes by producing porous sheath layers, and (F) to enhancing delivery efficiencies by modifying the sheath layers with polycationic polymers.

Mentions: A notable structural feature of the electrospinning process is its capability to produce a core-sheath structure within individual fibers, where multiple biomolecules at each layer can be designed to diffuse out sequentially (Figure 3). The electrospun nanofibers with the core-sheath structures can be fabricated using co-axial electrospinning (Figure 3A) [33, 39] or the emulsion electrospinning technique (Figure 3B) [64]. The core-sheath structures, whose representative morphology is demonstrated in Figure 3C, have been typically produced for the following: i) the protection of gene vectors from direct exposure to organic solvents and ii) the controlled release of gene vectors residing in core layers through modifying the shell structures. The inclusion of gene vectors in hydrophilic core-layers followed by encapsulation with hydrophobic shell-layers in organic solvents can prevent the direct contact of gene vectors with organic solvents (Figure 3D). Differences in the diffusion pathways of gene vectors through two layers composed of different materials can alter the release rates of the incorporated gene vectors in each layer, which have already been observed in many drug delivery studies using core-sheath structures [70, 71]. Unfortunately, the sequentially controlled release of multiple gene vectors from each core-sheath layer has not been explored yet. Taken together, these possibilities for the integration of gene delivery technologies into the core-sheath fibrous matrices can provide an efficient means to control the sequential release of multiple vectors and can simultaneously protect gene vectors in the core-layer against the relatively harsh processes.Figure 3


Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery.

Lee S, Jin G, Jang JH - J Biol Eng (2014)

Core-sheath electrospun nanofibrous systems for controlled gene delivery. (A) Two representative methods to form core-sheath electrospun nanofibers: coaxial (left) and emulsion (right) electrospinning. (B) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of an individual core-sheath nanofiber fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. Core and sheath are composed of viruses dispersed in Minimal Essential Medium and PCL, respectively. Scale bar is 2 μm. Reprinted from [30], Copyright 2009, with permission from Elsevier. (C) A scheme depicting gene vector encapsulation within the core layer for controlled release. The core-sheath fibrous formulations contribute (D) to preventing the direct contact of gene vectors in the core layer with organic solvents in the sheath layer, (E) to regulating delivery modes by producing porous sheath layers, and (F) to enhancing delivery efficiencies by modifying the sheath layers with polycationic polymers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414388&req=5

Fig3: Core-sheath electrospun nanofibrous systems for controlled gene delivery. (A) Two representative methods to form core-sheath electrospun nanofibers: coaxial (left) and emulsion (right) electrospinning. (B) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of an individual core-sheath nanofiber fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. Core and sheath are composed of viruses dispersed in Minimal Essential Medium and PCL, respectively. Scale bar is 2 μm. Reprinted from [30], Copyright 2009, with permission from Elsevier. (C) A scheme depicting gene vector encapsulation within the core layer for controlled release. The core-sheath fibrous formulations contribute (D) to preventing the direct contact of gene vectors in the core layer with organic solvents in the sheath layer, (E) to regulating delivery modes by producing porous sheath layers, and (F) to enhancing delivery efficiencies by modifying the sheath layers with polycationic polymers.
Mentions: A notable structural feature of the electrospinning process is its capability to produce a core-sheath structure within individual fibers, where multiple biomolecules at each layer can be designed to diffuse out sequentially (Figure 3). The electrospun nanofibers with the core-sheath structures can be fabricated using co-axial electrospinning (Figure 3A) [33, 39] or the emulsion electrospinning technique (Figure 3B) [64]. The core-sheath structures, whose representative morphology is demonstrated in Figure 3C, have been typically produced for the following: i) the protection of gene vectors from direct exposure to organic solvents and ii) the controlled release of gene vectors residing in core layers through modifying the shell structures. The inclusion of gene vectors in hydrophilic core-layers followed by encapsulation with hydrophobic shell-layers in organic solvents can prevent the direct contact of gene vectors with organic solvents (Figure 3D). Differences in the diffusion pathways of gene vectors through two layers composed of different materials can alter the release rates of the incorporated gene vectors in each layer, which have already been observed in many drug delivery studies using core-sheath structures [70, 71]. Unfortunately, the sequentially controlled release of multiple gene vectors from each core-sheath layer has not been explored yet. Taken together, these possibilities for the integration of gene delivery technologies into the core-sheath fibrous matrices can provide an efficient means to control the sequential release of multiple vectors and can simultaneously protect gene vectors in the core-layer against the relatively harsh processes.Figure 3

Bottom Line: As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios.Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency.This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 Korea.

ABSTRACT
The integration of gene delivery technologies with electrospun nanofibers is a versatile strategy to increase the potential of gene therapy as a key platform technology that can be readily utilized for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios. Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency. This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus