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Suitable classification of mortars from ancient Roman and Renaissance frescoes using thermal analysis and chemometrics.

Tomassetti M, Marini F, Campanella L, Positano M, Marinucci F - Chem Cent J (2015)

Bottom Line: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones.It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out.Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Rome, "La Sapienza" P.le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Literature on mortars has mainly focused on the identification and characterization of their components in order to assign them to a specific historical period, after accurate classification. For this purpose, different analytical techniques have been proposed. Aim of the present study was to verify whether the combination of thermal analysis and chemometric methods could be used to obtain a fast but correct classification of ancient mortar samples of different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

Results: Ancient Roman frescoes from Museo Nazionale Romano (Terme di Diocleziano, Rome, Italy) and Renaissance frescoes from Sistine Chapel and Old Vatican Rooms (Vatican City) were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Principal Component analysis (PCA) on the main thermal data evidenced the presence of two clusters, ascribable to the two different ages. Inspection of the loadings allowed to interpret the observed differences in terms of the experimental variables.

Conclusions: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones. It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out. Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

No MeSH data available.


PCA on all the data reported in Table 1 after autoscaling. Scores plot.
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Fig5: PCA on all the data reported in Table 1 after autoscaling. Scores plot.

Mentions: All the data reported in Table 1 were therefore processed after autoscaling by Principal Component Analysis [21,22] for the purpose of demonstrating how thermal data alone, simply with the help of chemometric projection techniques, are sufficient to separate mortars belonging to frescoes of different ages into different clusters. Indeed, the representation of the samples onto the space spanned by the two significant principal components (see Figure 5) clearly evidences a separation between Roman and Renaissance frescoes, and also the subgrouping of the latter.Figure 5


Suitable classification of mortars from ancient Roman and Renaissance frescoes using thermal analysis and chemometrics.

Tomassetti M, Marini F, Campanella L, Positano M, Marinucci F - Chem Cent J (2015)

PCA on all the data reported in Table 1 after autoscaling. Scores plot.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414380&req=5

Fig5: PCA on all the data reported in Table 1 after autoscaling. Scores plot.
Mentions: All the data reported in Table 1 were therefore processed after autoscaling by Principal Component Analysis [21,22] for the purpose of demonstrating how thermal data alone, simply with the help of chemometric projection techniques, are sufficient to separate mortars belonging to frescoes of different ages into different clusters. Indeed, the representation of the samples onto the space spanned by the two significant principal components (see Figure 5) clearly evidences a separation between Roman and Renaissance frescoes, and also the subgrouping of the latter.Figure 5

Bottom Line: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones.It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out.Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Rome, "La Sapienza" P.le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Literature on mortars has mainly focused on the identification and characterization of their components in order to assign them to a specific historical period, after accurate classification. For this purpose, different analytical techniques have been proposed. Aim of the present study was to verify whether the combination of thermal analysis and chemometric methods could be used to obtain a fast but correct classification of ancient mortar samples of different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

Results: Ancient Roman frescoes from Museo Nazionale Romano (Terme di Diocleziano, Rome, Italy) and Renaissance frescoes from Sistine Chapel and Old Vatican Rooms (Vatican City) were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Principal Component analysis (PCA) on the main thermal data evidenced the presence of two clusters, ascribable to the two different ages. Inspection of the loadings allowed to interpret the observed differences in terms of the experimental variables.

Conclusions: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones. It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out. Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

No MeSH data available.