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Suitable classification of mortars from ancient Roman and Renaissance frescoes using thermal analysis and chemometrics.

Tomassetti M, Marini F, Campanella L, Positano M, Marinucci F - Chem Cent J (2015)

Bottom Line: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones.It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out.Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Rome, "La Sapienza" P.le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Literature on mortars has mainly focused on the identification and characterization of their components in order to assign them to a specific historical period, after accurate classification. For this purpose, different analytical techniques have been proposed. Aim of the present study was to verify whether the combination of thermal analysis and chemometric methods could be used to obtain a fast but correct classification of ancient mortar samples of different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

Results: Ancient Roman frescoes from Museo Nazionale Romano (Terme di Diocleziano, Rome, Italy) and Renaissance frescoes from Sistine Chapel and Old Vatican Rooms (Vatican City) were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Principal Component analysis (PCA) on the main thermal data evidenced the presence of two clusters, ascribable to the two different ages. Inspection of the loadings allowed to interpret the observed differences in terms of the experimental variables.

Conclusions: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones. It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out. Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

No MeSH data available.


Details of frescoes from the Sistine Chapel or ancient Vatican Rooms (Vatican City). (a) C. Rosselli, “Il Passaggio del Mar Rosso”; (b) Raffaello, “Il Parnaso”; (c) fragment from the “Room of Heliodorus” glued on pottery support.
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Fig2: Details of frescoes from the Sistine Chapel or ancient Vatican Rooms (Vatican City). (a) C. Rosselli, “Il Passaggio del Mar Rosso”; (b) Raffaello, “Il Parnaso”; (c) fragment from the “Room of Heliodorus” glued on pottery support.

Mentions: “Passaggio del Mar Rosso”: from 1481 to 1483 Cosimo Rosselli took part in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel, the fresco of which contained different scenes such as “Il sermone della Montagna” and “l’Ultima Cena”, “Mosè riceve le tavolo della legge”, and lastly “Il passaggio del Mar Rosso” (Figure 2a). According to the commissioner’s desire it was necessary to present the sacred events in their ideological significance. This was fully grasped by Rosselli who performed these works not only painstakingly but also gave them an austere and highly dignified tone [19]. Also this fresco underwent a restoration in relatively recent times during which the stucco was consolidated, and clearing and reintegration of the picture carried out.Figure 2


Suitable classification of mortars from ancient Roman and Renaissance frescoes using thermal analysis and chemometrics.

Tomassetti M, Marini F, Campanella L, Positano M, Marinucci F - Chem Cent J (2015)

Details of frescoes from the Sistine Chapel or ancient Vatican Rooms (Vatican City). (a) C. Rosselli, “Il Passaggio del Mar Rosso”; (b) Raffaello, “Il Parnaso”; (c) fragment from the “Room of Heliodorus” glued on pottery support.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414380&req=5

Fig2: Details of frescoes from the Sistine Chapel or ancient Vatican Rooms (Vatican City). (a) C. Rosselli, “Il Passaggio del Mar Rosso”; (b) Raffaello, “Il Parnaso”; (c) fragment from the “Room of Heliodorus” glued on pottery support.
Mentions: “Passaggio del Mar Rosso”: from 1481 to 1483 Cosimo Rosselli took part in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel, the fresco of which contained different scenes such as “Il sermone della Montagna” and “l’Ultima Cena”, “Mosè riceve le tavolo della legge”, and lastly “Il passaggio del Mar Rosso” (Figure 2a). According to the commissioner’s desire it was necessary to present the sacred events in their ideological significance. This was fully grasped by Rosselli who performed these works not only painstakingly but also gave them an austere and highly dignified tone [19]. Also this fresco underwent a restoration in relatively recent times during which the stucco was consolidated, and clearing and reintegration of the picture carried out.Figure 2

Bottom Line: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones.It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out.Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Rome, "La Sapienza" P.le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Literature on mortars has mainly focused on the identification and characterization of their components in order to assign them to a specific historical period, after accurate classification. For this purpose, different analytical techniques have been proposed. Aim of the present study was to verify whether the combination of thermal analysis and chemometric methods could be used to obtain a fast but correct classification of ancient mortar samples of different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

Results: Ancient Roman frescoes from Museo Nazionale Romano (Terme di Diocleziano, Rome, Italy) and Renaissance frescoes from Sistine Chapel and Old Vatican Rooms (Vatican City) were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Principal Component analysis (PCA) on the main thermal data evidenced the presence of two clusters, ascribable to the two different ages. Inspection of the loadings allowed to interpret the observed differences in terms of the experimental variables.

Conclusions: PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones. It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out. Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

No MeSH data available.