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Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis.

Valentine B, Kamenov GD, Kenoyer JM, Shinde V, Mushrif-Tripathy V, Otarola-Castillo E, Krigbaum J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan) and Farmana (India) provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration.Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups.Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan) and Farmana (India) provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Heavy isotope ratio scatter plots of Indus Civilization human tooth enamel.Data are sorted by tooth type and plotted against inferred local ranges (indicated by black boxes). Arrows emphasize the broad progression from non-local first molars to local third molars. Relative to local sediment leachates and Rakhigarhi fauna, Farmana first molars have non-local distributions in (A) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (B) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb). Relative to local fauna, Harappa first molars have non-local distributions in (C) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (D) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb).
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pone.0123103.g004: Heavy isotope ratio scatter plots of Indus Civilization human tooth enamel.Data are sorted by tooth type and plotted against inferred local ranges (indicated by black boxes). Arrows emphasize the broad progression from non-local first molars to local third molars. Relative to local sediment leachates and Rakhigarhi fauna, Farmana first molars have non-local distributions in (A) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (B) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb). Relative to local fauna, Harappa first molars have non-local distributions in (C) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (D) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb).

Mentions: The local isotopic ranges coincide with patterns observed in the human isotope data, further suggesting that our isotopic estimates of local dietary catchments reflect actual provisioning practices. When plotted in multi-isotopic space, some second and third molars overlap with local fauna and sediments whereas first molar cohorts plot separately from the local distributions (Fig 4A–4D). Overlap between the Harappa first molar cohort and a single faunal data point in Pb-Pb space (Fig 4D) likely represents the outermost limits of the Harappan dietary catchment and suggests our definition of local isotopic ranges may slightly overestimate the lower limit of local isotopic variation. Similarly, the Farmana third molar cohort plots between Rakhigarhi fauna and Farmana sediment leachates suggesting that our baseline data provide a conservative estimate of local ranges.


Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis.

Valentine B, Kamenov GD, Kenoyer JM, Shinde V, Mushrif-Tripathy V, Otarola-Castillo E, Krigbaum J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Heavy isotope ratio scatter plots of Indus Civilization human tooth enamel.Data are sorted by tooth type and plotted against inferred local ranges (indicated by black boxes). Arrows emphasize the broad progression from non-local first molars to local third molars. Relative to local sediment leachates and Rakhigarhi fauna, Farmana first molars have non-local distributions in (A) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (B) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb). Relative to local fauna, Harappa first molars have non-local distributions in (C) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (D) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414352&req=5

pone.0123103.g004: Heavy isotope ratio scatter plots of Indus Civilization human tooth enamel.Data are sorted by tooth type and plotted against inferred local ranges (indicated by black boxes). Arrows emphasize the broad progression from non-local first molars to local third molars. Relative to local sediment leachates and Rakhigarhi fauna, Farmana first molars have non-local distributions in (A) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (B) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb). Relative to local fauna, Harappa first molars have non-local distributions in (C) Pb-Sr space (206Pb/204Pb vs. 87Sr/86Sr) and (D) Pb-Pb space (206Pb/204Pb vs.208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb).
Mentions: The local isotopic ranges coincide with patterns observed in the human isotope data, further suggesting that our isotopic estimates of local dietary catchments reflect actual provisioning practices. When plotted in multi-isotopic space, some second and third molars overlap with local fauna and sediments whereas first molar cohorts plot separately from the local distributions (Fig 4A–4D). Overlap between the Harappa first molar cohort and a single faunal data point in Pb-Pb space (Fig 4D) likely represents the outermost limits of the Harappan dietary catchment and suggests our definition of local isotopic ranges may slightly overestimate the lower limit of local isotopic variation. Similarly, the Farmana third molar cohort plots between Rakhigarhi fauna and Farmana sediment leachates suggesting that our baseline data provide a conservative estimate of local ranges.

Bottom Line: However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan) and Farmana (India) provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration.Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups.Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan) and Farmana (India) provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus