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Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

Sánchez Herrera M, Kuhn WR, Lorenzo-Carballa MO, Harding KM, Ankrom N, Sherratt TN, Hoffmann J, Van Gossum H, Ware JL, Cordero-Rivera A, Beatty CD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations.Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology.We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

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“Default wing” used as a template for landmarking analysis of fore- and hindwings of Polythore wingform.The positions of six major bands (I–VI) are marked as the cross six longitudinal veins: anterior edge or costa (C), radius anterior (RA), second branch of radius posterior (RP2), third branch of radius posterior (RP3), media posterior (MP), and posterior edge (venation terminology per Riek & Kukalová-Peck (1984)). (A) LMs 1–14 are major morphological points representing the basic venation pattern (~outline) of the wing, and LMs 15–50 represent the proximal edges of the six bands. (C–D) red arrows depict protocol for “collapsing” LMs in (C) proximodistal and (D) anteroposterior directions in wings where bands are missing or do not extend the full width of the wing (see Methods text for full description).
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pone.0125074.g003: “Default wing” used as a template for landmarking analysis of fore- and hindwings of Polythore wingform.The positions of six major bands (I–VI) are marked as the cross six longitudinal veins: anterior edge or costa (C), radius anterior (RA), second branch of radius posterior (RP2), third branch of radius posterior (RP3), media posterior (MP), and posterior edge (venation terminology per Riek & Kukalová-Peck (1984)). (A) LMs 1–14 are major morphological points representing the basic venation pattern (~outline) of the wing, and LMs 15–50 represent the proximal edges of the six bands. (C–D) red arrows depict protocol for “collapsing” LMs in (C) proximodistal and (D) anteroposterior directions in wings where bands are missing or do not extend the full width of the wing (see Methods text for full description).

Mentions: To compare relative position and shape of wing banding patterns, allowing for comparison among individuals, landmarks (LMs, hereafter; i.e. Cartesian coordinates) were placed on the wing scans. A standard set of 50 LMs (Fig 3A) was placed on each digitized fore- and hindwing using tpsDig (v2.05; [36]); all landmarking was performed by a single technician to ensure consistent LM placement.


Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

Sánchez Herrera M, Kuhn WR, Lorenzo-Carballa MO, Harding KM, Ankrom N, Sherratt TN, Hoffmann J, Van Gossum H, Ware JL, Cordero-Rivera A, Beatty CD - PLoS ONE (2015)

“Default wing” used as a template for landmarking analysis of fore- and hindwings of Polythore wingform.The positions of six major bands (I–VI) are marked as the cross six longitudinal veins: anterior edge or costa (C), radius anterior (RA), second branch of radius posterior (RP2), third branch of radius posterior (RP3), media posterior (MP), and posterior edge (venation terminology per Riek & Kukalová-Peck (1984)). (A) LMs 1–14 are major morphological points representing the basic venation pattern (~outline) of the wing, and LMs 15–50 represent the proximal edges of the six bands. (C–D) red arrows depict protocol for “collapsing” LMs in (C) proximodistal and (D) anteroposterior directions in wings where bands are missing or do not extend the full width of the wing (see Methods text for full description).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414280&req=5

pone.0125074.g003: “Default wing” used as a template for landmarking analysis of fore- and hindwings of Polythore wingform.The positions of six major bands (I–VI) are marked as the cross six longitudinal veins: anterior edge or costa (C), radius anterior (RA), second branch of radius posterior (RP2), third branch of radius posterior (RP3), media posterior (MP), and posterior edge (venation terminology per Riek & Kukalová-Peck (1984)). (A) LMs 1–14 are major morphological points representing the basic venation pattern (~outline) of the wing, and LMs 15–50 represent the proximal edges of the six bands. (C–D) red arrows depict protocol for “collapsing” LMs in (C) proximodistal and (D) anteroposterior directions in wings where bands are missing or do not extend the full width of the wing (see Methods text for full description).
Mentions: To compare relative position and shape of wing banding patterns, allowing for comparison among individuals, landmarks (LMs, hereafter; i.e. Cartesian coordinates) were placed on the wing scans. A standard set of 50 LMs (Fig 3A) was placed on each digitized fore- and hindwing using tpsDig (v2.05; [36]); all landmarking was performed by a single technician to ensure consistent LM placement.

Bottom Line: The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations.Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology.We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus