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Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

Sánchez Herrera M, Kuhn WR, Lorenzo-Carballa MO, Harding KM, Ankrom N, Sherratt TN, Hoffmann J, Van Gossum H, Ware JL, Cordero-Rivera A, Beatty CD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations.Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology.We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

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Collection localities of Polythore used in this study and phylogenetic reconstruction using Cytochrome oxidase I (COI).(A) map of collection localities of and (B) phylogenetic reconstruction (best ML phylogram) using COI data, values above the branches represent bootstraps support (ML) and posterior probabilities (BI). The magenta dots on the nodes represent the OTUs or species boundaries estimated by the PTP species delimitation model; lighter color represents less-supported probability for that OTU.
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pone.0125074.g002: Collection localities of Polythore used in this study and phylogenetic reconstruction using Cytochrome oxidase I (COI).(A) map of collection localities of and (B) phylogenetic reconstruction (best ML phylogram) using COI data, values above the branches represent bootstraps support (ML) and posterior probabilities (BI). The magenta dots on the nodes represent the OTUs or species boundaries estimated by the PTP species delimitation model; lighter color represents less-supported probability for that OTU.

Mentions: A total of 94 specimens were collected from localities in regions of the lower and central Amazon basin of Peru in July and September of 2008 (Fig 2A, Table A in S1 File). Specimens were collected with permission from the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) of Peru (Authorization #62-2008-INRENA-IFFS-DCB and #016 C/C-2008-INRENA-IANP). All Polythore specimens used for these analyses were collected on private lands with permission from the landowners. No protected species were sampled. After collection, specimens were either placed in individual glassine envelopes that were stored in airtight dry containers, or in vials with absolute ethanol. Both dried and ethanol-preserved specimens of males and females were used for wing coloration and DNA analysis.


Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

Sánchez Herrera M, Kuhn WR, Lorenzo-Carballa MO, Harding KM, Ankrom N, Sherratt TN, Hoffmann J, Van Gossum H, Ware JL, Cordero-Rivera A, Beatty CD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Collection localities of Polythore used in this study and phylogenetic reconstruction using Cytochrome oxidase I (COI).(A) map of collection localities of and (B) phylogenetic reconstruction (best ML phylogram) using COI data, values above the branches represent bootstraps support (ML) and posterior probabilities (BI). The magenta dots on the nodes represent the OTUs or species boundaries estimated by the PTP species delimitation model; lighter color represents less-supported probability for that OTU.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414280&req=5

pone.0125074.g002: Collection localities of Polythore used in this study and phylogenetic reconstruction using Cytochrome oxidase I (COI).(A) map of collection localities of and (B) phylogenetic reconstruction (best ML phylogram) using COI data, values above the branches represent bootstraps support (ML) and posterior probabilities (BI). The magenta dots on the nodes represent the OTUs or species boundaries estimated by the PTP species delimitation model; lighter color represents less-supported probability for that OTU.
Mentions: A total of 94 specimens were collected from localities in regions of the lower and central Amazon basin of Peru in July and September of 2008 (Fig 2A, Table A in S1 File). Specimens were collected with permission from the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) of Peru (Authorization #62-2008-INRENA-IFFS-DCB and #016 C/C-2008-INRENA-IANP). All Polythore specimens used for these analyses were collected on private lands with permission from the landowners. No protected species were sampled. After collection, specimens were either placed in individual glassine envelopes that were stored in airtight dry containers, or in vials with absolute ethanol. Both dried and ethanol-preserved specimens of males and females were used for wing coloration and DNA analysis.

Bottom Line: The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations.Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology.We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the potential evolutionary mechanisms that could maintain it.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus