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Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current.

Reimer JJ, Vargas R, Rivas D, Gaxiola-Castro G, Hernandez-Ayon JM, Lara-Lara R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems.The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns).These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could influence coastal ecosystem productivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, United States of America; Departamento de Oceanografía Biológica, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada, Baja California, México; Programa Mexicano del Carbono, Texcoco, Estado de México, México.

ABSTRACT
Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could influence coastal ecosystem productivity.

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GPP and fPAR along the Bahia Magdalena transect.The Bahia Magdalena (BM) transect, clockwise from the top-left: A) the annual sum of mean GPP for all the sites along each transect. In each group of years the first bar from the left is the coastal site with each sequential bar representing the next site to the east. The error bars (standard error) are too short to be seen on the graphic. Panels B, C, and D) linear regression analysis for the SST (predictor) and fPAR (response) for BM1, BM2, and BM3, respectively.
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pone.0125177.g004: GPP and fPAR along the Bahia Magdalena transect.The Bahia Magdalena (BM) transect, clockwise from the top-left: A) the annual sum of mean GPP for all the sites along each transect. In each group of years the first bar from the left is the coastal site with each sequential bar representing the next site to the east. The error bars (standard error) are too short to be seen on the graphic. Panels B, C, and D) linear regression analysis for the SST (predictor) and fPAR (response) for BM1, BM2, and BM3, respectively.

Mentions: Results are organized from north to south along the peninsula in order to emphasize the spatial differences between transects (Fig 1). Along each transect we focus on a synthesis of the overall characteristics, rather than a detailed comparison of site specific differences. We did not observe statistically significant temporal trends for SST for any transect. Thus, we find no evidence of temporal changes in SST along the CC. We do, however, find evidence of changes in fPAR over time with the trends varying in magnitude and direction (increase at the subtropical site, decreasing in the middle of the peninsula, and no trend at the two sites closest to the coast in the semi-arid northern site). All trends reported herein are significantly different than zero (95% confidence intervals [CI]) do not overlap with zero) with results reported in Table 2. Regression analyses for all sites were repeated omitting potential outliers. We could not define outliers based on typical statistical ranges (i.e., ± 3 standard deviations), as all of the data fell within this range due to the large variance in the distribution of the data. Therefore, we specifically omitted three specific data points at PC1, PC2, and PC3 (with SST ~13°C; Fig 2B, 2C and 2D), none at PA (Fig 3B and 3C), and at BM1 (fPAR ~0.09; Fig 4B) that appeared to potentially alter the results of the linear regression. Our results show that during all instances the repeat analyses were not statistically different from the initial analyses; therefore all results are presented using the former approach.


Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current.

Reimer JJ, Vargas R, Rivas D, Gaxiola-Castro G, Hernandez-Ayon JM, Lara-Lara R - PLoS ONE (2015)

GPP and fPAR along the Bahia Magdalena transect.The Bahia Magdalena (BM) transect, clockwise from the top-left: A) the annual sum of mean GPP for all the sites along each transect. In each group of years the first bar from the left is the coastal site with each sequential bar representing the next site to the east. The error bars (standard error) are too short to be seen on the graphic. Panels B, C, and D) linear regression analysis for the SST (predictor) and fPAR (response) for BM1, BM2, and BM3, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414274&req=5

pone.0125177.g004: GPP and fPAR along the Bahia Magdalena transect.The Bahia Magdalena (BM) transect, clockwise from the top-left: A) the annual sum of mean GPP for all the sites along each transect. In each group of years the first bar from the left is the coastal site with each sequential bar representing the next site to the east. The error bars (standard error) are too short to be seen on the graphic. Panels B, C, and D) linear regression analysis for the SST (predictor) and fPAR (response) for BM1, BM2, and BM3, respectively.
Mentions: Results are organized from north to south along the peninsula in order to emphasize the spatial differences between transects (Fig 1). Along each transect we focus on a synthesis of the overall characteristics, rather than a detailed comparison of site specific differences. We did not observe statistically significant temporal trends for SST for any transect. Thus, we find no evidence of temporal changes in SST along the CC. We do, however, find evidence of changes in fPAR over time with the trends varying in magnitude and direction (increase at the subtropical site, decreasing in the middle of the peninsula, and no trend at the two sites closest to the coast in the semi-arid northern site). All trends reported herein are significantly different than zero (95% confidence intervals [CI]) do not overlap with zero) with results reported in Table 2. Regression analyses for all sites were repeated omitting potential outliers. We could not define outliers based on typical statistical ranges (i.e., ± 3 standard deviations), as all of the data fell within this range due to the large variance in the distribution of the data. Therefore, we specifically omitted three specific data points at PC1, PC2, and PC3 (with SST ~13°C; Fig 2B, 2C and 2D), none at PA (Fig 3B and 3C), and at BM1 (fPAR ~0.09; Fig 4B) that appeared to potentially alter the results of the linear regression. Our results show that during all instances the repeat analyses were not statistically different from the initial analyses; therefore all results are presented using the former approach.

Bottom Line: Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems.The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns).These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could influence coastal ecosystem productivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, United States of America; Departamento de Oceanografía Biológica, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada, Baja California, México; Programa Mexicano del Carbono, Texcoco, Estado de México, México.

ABSTRACT
Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could influence coastal ecosystem productivity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus