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Trends in developed land cover adjacent to habitat for threatened salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

Bartz KK, Ford MJ, Beechie TJ, Fresh KL, Pess GR, Kennedy RE, Rowse ML, Sheer M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008).Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds.Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Breakpoint Estimates: Watershed Scale.Breakpoint estimates (open circles), standard errors (surrounding bars), and median value (dotted line) for six habitat areas, summarized at the watershed scale. Only those watersheds in which the segmented regression outperformed the simple regression (i.e., Δ AICc >4) are shown. Breakpoints within the tail ends of the time series (gray shaded areas) should be viewed with caution.
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pone.0124415.g007: Breakpoint Estimates: Watershed Scale.Breakpoint estimates (open circles), standard errors (surrounding bars), and median value (dotted line) for six habitat areas, summarized at the watershed scale. Only those watersheds in which the segmented regression outperformed the simple regression (i.e., Δ AICc >4) are shown. Breakpoints within the tail ends of the time series (gray shaded areas) should be viewed with caution.

Mentions: In total, we assessed changes in trend for 91 habitat-by-watershed combinations (i.e., 7 nearshore, 16 estuary, and 17 in each of the mainstem, tributary, floodplain, and basin areas). For 51 of these 91 combinations, Δ AICc values indicated strong evidence for breakpoints in trends at the watershed scale (Fig 6, S2 File). The timing of the breakpoint in trends varied greatly among watersheds and habitat areas (median = 1999.5), with no apparent pattern (Fig 7). In general, changes in trend were most dramatic in the central and southern watersheds. Trends in developed land cover adjacent to mainstem and floodplain habitats became flatter in the latter part of the time series for most watersheds (i.e., b2 < b1). Particularly for mainstem habitat, several watersheds (Nooksack, Nisqually, Deschutes) had substantial changes in trend, shifting from strongly increasing to strongly decreasing (Fig 6). The relationship between the degree of change in trend and the percentage of developed land cover in 1986 was complex, and varied considerably among habitat areas (Fig 8).


Trends in developed land cover adjacent to habitat for threatened salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

Bartz KK, Ford MJ, Beechie TJ, Fresh KL, Pess GR, Kennedy RE, Rowse ML, Sheer M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Breakpoint Estimates: Watershed Scale.Breakpoint estimates (open circles), standard errors (surrounding bars), and median value (dotted line) for six habitat areas, summarized at the watershed scale. Only those watersheds in which the segmented regression outperformed the simple regression (i.e., Δ AICc >4) are shown. Breakpoints within the tail ends of the time series (gray shaded areas) should be viewed with caution.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4414273&req=5

pone.0124415.g007: Breakpoint Estimates: Watershed Scale.Breakpoint estimates (open circles), standard errors (surrounding bars), and median value (dotted line) for six habitat areas, summarized at the watershed scale. Only those watersheds in which the segmented regression outperformed the simple regression (i.e., Δ AICc >4) are shown. Breakpoints within the tail ends of the time series (gray shaded areas) should be viewed with caution.
Mentions: In total, we assessed changes in trend for 91 habitat-by-watershed combinations (i.e., 7 nearshore, 16 estuary, and 17 in each of the mainstem, tributary, floodplain, and basin areas). For 51 of these 91 combinations, Δ AICc values indicated strong evidence for breakpoints in trends at the watershed scale (Fig 6, S2 File). The timing of the breakpoint in trends varied greatly among watersheds and habitat areas (median = 1999.5), with no apparent pattern (Fig 7). In general, changes in trend were most dramatic in the central and southern watersheds. Trends in developed land cover adjacent to mainstem and floodplain habitats became flatter in the latter part of the time series for most watersheds (i.e., b2 < b1). Particularly for mainstem habitat, several watersheds (Nooksack, Nisqually, Deschutes) had substantial changes in trend, shifting from strongly increasing to strongly decreasing (Fig 6). The relationship between the degree of change in trend and the percentage of developed land cover in 1986 was complex, and varied considerably among habitat areas (Fig 8).

Bottom Line: For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008).Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds.Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus