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Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia.

Jaimes-Dueñez J, Arboleda S, Triana-Chávez O, Gómez-Palacio A - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha.Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities.Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West African conspecific, and a second that may have been recently introduced and is related to an East African conspecific.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo Biología y Control de Enfermedades Infecciosas-BCEI, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV.

Methods/findings: Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West African conspecific, and a second that may have been recently introduced and is related to an East African conspecific. The first lineage can be found in cities showing a high incidence of dengue fever and the use of chemical insecticides, whereas the second is present in cities showing a low incidence of dengue fever where the use of chemical insecticides is not constant. This study helps to improve our knowledge of the population structure of Ae. aegypti involved in the diversity of dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia.

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Collection sites of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in Colombian cities of (A) Riohacha, (D) Bello and (G) Villavicencio, and the respective neighborhoods sampled in each city.The surrounding area of each city and the studied neighborhoods (gray area) of Unión (B) and Aeropuerto (C) from RI; Cumbre (E) and Granjas (F) from BE; and Porfia (H) and Popular (I) from VI are shown in the right panel. Green, yellow and red circles indicate the spatial distribution of positive houses for Ae. aegypti in the first, second and third sampling, respectively (for details see Table 1).
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pntd.0003553.g001: Collection sites of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in Colombian cities of (A) Riohacha, (D) Bello and (G) Villavicencio, and the respective neighborhoods sampled in each city.The surrounding area of each city and the studied neighborhoods (gray area) of Unión (B) and Aeropuerto (C) from RI; Cumbre (E) and Granjas (F) from BE; and Porfia (H) and Popular (I) from VI are shown in the right panel. Green, yellow and red circles indicate the spatial distribution of positive houses for Ae. aegypti in the first, second and third sampling, respectively (for details see Table 1).

Mentions: The cities sampled are localized in three eco-geographic regions with distinct climates and dengue incidence (Fig. 1). Bello (BE) is located in the central Andean region of Colombia in the inter-Andean valleys (Valle de Aburrá) at an altitude of 1250 meters [22] where, because of social control programs and the continuous removal of potential breeding sites of Ae. aegypti, the city manifests low incidence rates of between 25.9 to 52.3 cases (per 100,000 inhabitants) and a reduced use of chemical insecticides [19]. Riohacha (RI) is located in northern Colombia’s Caribbean Coast region at an altitude of 2 meters [22], a desert region with a comparatively moderate dengue fever incidence of between 45.3 to 206.8 cases (per 100,000 inhabitants) [19]. Villavicencio (VI) is located in the east in the wide plains of the Orinoquia region at an altitude of 467 meters [22] and is the city that shows the highest incidence rates of dengue in Colombia, between 118.2 to 974.4 cases (per 100,000 inhabitants) [19]. In the last two cities, the strategic plans against dengue fever include entomologic surveillance and the continuous use of chemical insecticides. The geographic origin and the dates of sample collections are detailed in Table 1 and Fig. 1.


Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia.

Jaimes-Dueñez J, Arboleda S, Triana-Chávez O, Gómez-Palacio A - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Collection sites of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in Colombian cities of (A) Riohacha, (D) Bello and (G) Villavicencio, and the respective neighborhoods sampled in each city.The surrounding area of each city and the studied neighborhoods (gray area) of Unión (B) and Aeropuerto (C) from RI; Cumbre (E) and Granjas (F) from BE; and Porfia (H) and Popular (I) from VI are shown in the right panel. Green, yellow and red circles indicate the spatial distribution of positive houses for Ae. aegypti in the first, second and third sampling, respectively (for details see Table 1).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403987&req=5

pntd.0003553.g001: Collection sites of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in Colombian cities of (A) Riohacha, (D) Bello and (G) Villavicencio, and the respective neighborhoods sampled in each city.The surrounding area of each city and the studied neighborhoods (gray area) of Unión (B) and Aeropuerto (C) from RI; Cumbre (E) and Granjas (F) from BE; and Porfia (H) and Popular (I) from VI are shown in the right panel. Green, yellow and red circles indicate the spatial distribution of positive houses for Ae. aegypti in the first, second and third sampling, respectively (for details see Table 1).
Mentions: The cities sampled are localized in three eco-geographic regions with distinct climates and dengue incidence (Fig. 1). Bello (BE) is located in the central Andean region of Colombia in the inter-Andean valleys (Valle de Aburrá) at an altitude of 1250 meters [22] where, because of social control programs and the continuous removal of potential breeding sites of Ae. aegypti, the city manifests low incidence rates of between 25.9 to 52.3 cases (per 100,000 inhabitants) and a reduced use of chemical insecticides [19]. Riohacha (RI) is located in northern Colombia’s Caribbean Coast region at an altitude of 2 meters [22], a desert region with a comparatively moderate dengue fever incidence of between 45.3 to 206.8 cases (per 100,000 inhabitants) [19]. Villavicencio (VI) is located in the east in the wide plains of the Orinoquia region at an altitude of 467 meters [22] and is the city that shows the highest incidence rates of dengue in Colombia, between 118.2 to 974.4 cases (per 100,000 inhabitants) [19]. In the last two cities, the strategic plans against dengue fever include entomologic surveillance and the continuous use of chemical insecticides. The geographic origin and the dates of sample collections are detailed in Table 1 and Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha.Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities.Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West African conspecific, and a second that may have been recently introduced and is related to an East African conspecific.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo Biología y Control de Enfermedades Infecciosas-BCEI, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV.

Methods/findings: Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West African conspecific, and a second that may have been recently introduced and is related to an East African conspecific. The first lineage can be found in cities showing a high incidence of dengue fever and the use of chemical insecticides, whereas the second is present in cities showing a low incidence of dengue fever where the use of chemical insecticides is not constant. This study helps to improve our knowledge of the population structure of Ae. aegypti involved in the diversity of dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus