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Linking anthropogenic resources to wildlife-pathogen dynamics: a review and meta-analysis.

Becker DJ, Streicker DG, Altizer S - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

Bottom Line: Urbanisation and agriculture cause declines for many wildlife, but some species benefit from novel resources, especially food, provided in human-dominated habitats.By integrating results of our meta-analysis back into a theoretical framework, we find provisioning amplifies pathogen invasion under increased host aggregation and tolerance, but reduces transmission if provisioned food decreases dietary exposure to parasites.These results carry implications for wildlife disease management and highlight areas for future work, such as how resource shifts might affect virulence evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

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Distribution of effect sizes for observed relationships between provisioning and infection outcomes (points ± 95% confidence intervals) alongside the mean effect size estimate (diamond) from the bias-corrected REM (a). Each point is a particular host–pathogen interaction. Points above the horizontal line demonstrate cases where provisioning increased infection prevalence, intensity or seroprevalence; points below the horizontal line demonstrate reduced infection outcomes. (b) Estimated mean effect size of predictors on infection outcomes, denoted through diamonds alongside 95% confidence intervals. Sample size (n) refers to the number of host–pathogen interactions corresponding to each level. Positive effect sizes indicate increases in infection outcomes (measures of prevalence, seroprevalence and intensity are pooled).
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fig02: Distribution of effect sizes for observed relationships between provisioning and infection outcomes (points ± 95% confidence intervals) alongside the mean effect size estimate (diamond) from the bias-corrected REM (a). Each point is a particular host–pathogen interaction. Points above the horizontal line demonstrate cases where provisioning increased infection prevalence, intensity or seroprevalence; points below the horizontal line demonstrate reduced infection outcomes. (b) Estimated mean effect size of predictors on infection outcomes, denoted through diamonds alongside 95% confidence intervals. Sample size (n) refers to the number of host–pathogen interactions corresponding to each level. Positive effect sizes indicate increases in infection outcomes (measures of prevalence, seroprevalence and intensity are pooled).

Mentions: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that provisioning is associated with a wide range of infection outcomes in wildlife (Fig.2a). Of the 132 wildlife–pathogen interactions identified, most showed no relationship between provisioning and infection measures (65%, n = 86), with 24% (n = 31) identifying positive and 11% (n = 15) identifying negative effects of anthropogenic resources. After adjusting for missing data due to suppression of extreme or non-significant results (Fig. S4), there was significant heterogeneity in infection outcomes (τ2 = 0.18; Q = 16902, d.f. = 176, P < 0.001) but no net directional effect of provisioning in the REM (z = −1.79, P = 0.07; Fig.2a).


Linking anthropogenic resources to wildlife-pathogen dynamics: a review and meta-analysis.

Becker DJ, Streicker DG, Altizer S - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

Distribution of effect sizes for observed relationships between provisioning and infection outcomes (points ± 95% confidence intervals) alongside the mean effect size estimate (diamond) from the bias-corrected REM (a). Each point is a particular host–pathogen interaction. Points above the horizontal line demonstrate cases where provisioning increased infection prevalence, intensity or seroprevalence; points below the horizontal line demonstrate reduced infection outcomes. (b) Estimated mean effect size of predictors on infection outcomes, denoted through diamonds alongside 95% confidence intervals. Sample size (n) refers to the number of host–pathogen interactions corresponding to each level. Positive effect sizes indicate increases in infection outcomes (measures of prevalence, seroprevalence and intensity are pooled).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403965&req=5

fig02: Distribution of effect sizes for observed relationships between provisioning and infection outcomes (points ± 95% confidence intervals) alongside the mean effect size estimate (diamond) from the bias-corrected REM (a). Each point is a particular host–pathogen interaction. Points above the horizontal line demonstrate cases where provisioning increased infection prevalence, intensity or seroprevalence; points below the horizontal line demonstrate reduced infection outcomes. (b) Estimated mean effect size of predictors on infection outcomes, denoted through diamonds alongside 95% confidence intervals. Sample size (n) refers to the number of host–pathogen interactions corresponding to each level. Positive effect sizes indicate increases in infection outcomes (measures of prevalence, seroprevalence and intensity are pooled).
Mentions: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that provisioning is associated with a wide range of infection outcomes in wildlife (Fig.2a). Of the 132 wildlife–pathogen interactions identified, most showed no relationship between provisioning and infection measures (65%, n = 86), with 24% (n = 31) identifying positive and 11% (n = 15) identifying negative effects of anthropogenic resources. After adjusting for missing data due to suppression of extreme or non-significant results (Fig. S4), there was significant heterogeneity in infection outcomes (τ2 = 0.18; Q = 16902, d.f. = 176, P < 0.001) but no net directional effect of provisioning in the REM (z = −1.79, P = 0.07; Fig.2a).

Bottom Line: Urbanisation and agriculture cause declines for many wildlife, but some species benefit from novel resources, especially food, provided in human-dominated habitats.By integrating results of our meta-analysis back into a theoretical framework, we find provisioning amplifies pathogen invasion under increased host aggregation and tolerance, but reduces transmission if provisioned food decreases dietary exposure to parasites.These results carry implications for wildlife disease management and highlight areas for future work, such as how resource shifts might affect virulence evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus