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Unifying ecology and macroevolution with individual-based theory.

Rosindell J, Harmon LJ, Etienne RS - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

Bottom Line: We show that this model generates realistic phylogenies showing a slowdown in diversification and also improves on the ecological predictions of neutral theory by explaining the occurrence of very common species.Moreover, we find the distribution of individual fitness changes over time, with average fitness increasing at a pace that depends positively on community size.Consequently, large communities tend to produce fitter species than smaller communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Evolutionary Lineages-Through-Time (LTT) plots (panels a, b) with ecological Species Abundance Distributions (SADs) (panels c, d). Model parameters were JM = 100 000 and μ = 0.0002. Shown are the cases n = 1 (panels a, c) and n = 2 (panels b, d). The colours correspond to different degrees of selection and include the neutral case as shown in the legend. The log-series fit shown by the black line in panel (c) was the optimal least-squares fit considering only the first eight octaves of the SAD and not attempting to fit the remainder, which correspond to the most common species. The black dotted line shows an equivalent fit to the complete SAD. The blue bars in panel (c) show the case s = 0.01, n = 1 the first eight octaves of which was best fitted with a log-series where JM = 11 622 and μ = 0.00172.
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fig06: Evolutionary Lineages-Through-Time (LTT) plots (panels a, b) with ecological Species Abundance Distributions (SADs) (panels c, d). Model parameters were JM = 100 000 and μ = 0.0002. Shown are the cases n = 1 (panels a, c) and n = 2 (panels b, d). The colours correspond to different degrees of selection and include the neutral case as shown in the legend. The log-series fit shown by the black line in panel (c) was the optimal least-squares fit considering only the first eight octaves of the SAD and not attempting to fit the remainder, which correspond to the most common species. The black dotted line shows an equivalent fit to the complete SAD. The blue bars in panel (c) show the case s = 0.01, n = 1 the first eight octaves of which was best fitted with a log-series where JM = 11 622 and μ = 0.00172.

Mentions: The introduction of selection in the UTEM has a profound impact on the relationship between time and number of extant lineages in a phylogeny: a Lineages Through Time (LTT) plot. The LTT plot from a neutral model (s = 0) shows an extreme acceleration in diversification near the present day that is rarely seen empirically. As selection increases, the resulting LTT plots straighten and become akin to the those predicted by the quite different lineage-level birth-death model of diversification (Nee et al. 1994) (Fig.6a). The ecological predictions also change with increased selection, but not dramatically. The resulting species abundance distribution at equilibrium with s = 0.01 is still log-series-like, but has an additional tail of really common species (Fig.6c), as is observed in reality but not predicted by UNTB (Ricklefs 2006; Etienne et al. 2007).


Unifying ecology and macroevolution with individual-based theory.

Rosindell J, Harmon LJ, Etienne RS - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

Evolutionary Lineages-Through-Time (LTT) plots (panels a, b) with ecological Species Abundance Distributions (SADs) (panels c, d). Model parameters were JM = 100 000 and μ = 0.0002. Shown are the cases n = 1 (panels a, c) and n = 2 (panels b, d). The colours correspond to different degrees of selection and include the neutral case as shown in the legend. The log-series fit shown by the black line in panel (c) was the optimal least-squares fit considering only the first eight octaves of the SAD and not attempting to fit the remainder, which correspond to the most common species. The black dotted line shows an equivalent fit to the complete SAD. The blue bars in panel (c) show the case s = 0.01, n = 1 the first eight octaves of which was best fitted with a log-series where JM = 11 622 and μ = 0.00172.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403962&req=5

fig06: Evolutionary Lineages-Through-Time (LTT) plots (panels a, b) with ecological Species Abundance Distributions (SADs) (panels c, d). Model parameters were JM = 100 000 and μ = 0.0002. Shown are the cases n = 1 (panels a, c) and n = 2 (panels b, d). The colours correspond to different degrees of selection and include the neutral case as shown in the legend. The log-series fit shown by the black line in panel (c) was the optimal least-squares fit considering only the first eight octaves of the SAD and not attempting to fit the remainder, which correspond to the most common species. The black dotted line shows an equivalent fit to the complete SAD. The blue bars in panel (c) show the case s = 0.01, n = 1 the first eight octaves of which was best fitted with a log-series where JM = 11 622 and μ = 0.00172.
Mentions: The introduction of selection in the UTEM has a profound impact on the relationship between time and number of extant lineages in a phylogeny: a Lineages Through Time (LTT) plot. The LTT plot from a neutral model (s = 0) shows an extreme acceleration in diversification near the present day that is rarely seen empirically. As selection increases, the resulting LTT plots straighten and become akin to the those predicted by the quite different lineage-level birth-death model of diversification (Nee et al. 1994) (Fig.6a). The ecological predictions also change with increased selection, but not dramatically. The resulting species abundance distribution at equilibrium with s = 0.01 is still log-series-like, but has an additional tail of really common species (Fig.6c), as is observed in reality but not predicted by UNTB (Ricklefs 2006; Etienne et al. 2007).

Bottom Line: We show that this model generates realistic phylogenies showing a slowdown in diversification and also improves on the ecological predictions of neutral theory by explaining the occurrence of very common species.Moreover, we find the distribution of individual fitness changes over time, with average fitness increasing at a pace that depends positively on community size.Consequently, large communities tend to produce fitter species than smaller communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus