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Unifying ecology and macroevolution with individual-based theory.

Rosindell J, Harmon LJ, Etienne RS - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

Bottom Line: We show that this model generates realistic phylogenies showing a slowdown in diversification and also improves on the ecological predictions of neutral theory by explaining the occurrence of very common species.Moreover, we find the distribution of individual fitness changes over time, with average fitness increasing at a pace that depends positively on community size.Consequently, large communities tend to produce fitter species than smaller communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of parameters JM, μ, s and n on the pace of evolutionary change (panels a, b), the variance in fitness category within the system (panels c, d) and the variance in fitness category within species (panels e, f). Panels (a, c) show the effect of metacommunity size JM for a selection of s and μ values shown in different colours. Panels (b, d) show the effect of mutation rate μ for a selection of s and JM values. In the case where n = 1, these results refer to the fitness categories of good species; when n > 1, they refer to the fitness categories of incipient species. Panels (e, f) show within-species variation in c for JM = 10 000 and s = 0.001 with variable μ and n. As n → ∞ all incipient species become lumped into one good species making the within-species variation equal to the variation in the entire system.
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fig04: The effect of parameters JM, μ, s and n on the pace of evolutionary change (panels a, b), the variance in fitness category within the system (panels c, d) and the variance in fitness category within species (panels e, f). Panels (a, c) show the effect of metacommunity size JM for a selection of s and μ values shown in different colours. Panels (b, d) show the effect of mutation rate μ for a selection of s and JM values. In the case where n = 1, these results refer to the fitness categories of good species; when n > 1, they refer to the fitness categories of incipient species. Panels (e, f) show within-species variation in c for JM = 10 000 and s = 0.001 with variable μ and n. As n → ∞ all incipient species become lumped into one good species making the within-species variation equal to the variation in the entire system.

Mentions: Simulations of our model show a tight distribution of incipient species fitness (Fig.3a) with a standard deviation that rarely exceeds one fitness category (Fig.4c, d). Individuals thus have similar fitness compared to others alive simultaneously in the same community. As time passes, however, the distribution of fitness categories moves (Fig.3a, b), allowing species to be very different to those alive a long time ago, whereas the shape of the fitness distribution remains relatively constant. The rate at which the modal fitness category progresses is not subject to much variation, even though the model is stochastic (Fig.3b).


Unifying ecology and macroevolution with individual-based theory.

Rosindell J, Harmon LJ, Etienne RS - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

The effect of parameters JM, μ, s and n on the pace of evolutionary change (panels a, b), the variance in fitness category within the system (panels c, d) and the variance in fitness category within species (panels e, f). Panels (a, c) show the effect of metacommunity size JM for a selection of s and μ values shown in different colours. Panels (b, d) show the effect of mutation rate μ for a selection of s and JM values. In the case where n = 1, these results refer to the fitness categories of good species; when n > 1, they refer to the fitness categories of incipient species. Panels (e, f) show within-species variation in c for JM = 10 000 and s = 0.001 with variable μ and n. As n → ∞ all incipient species become lumped into one good species making the within-species variation equal to the variation in the entire system.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403962&req=5

fig04: The effect of parameters JM, μ, s and n on the pace of evolutionary change (panels a, b), the variance in fitness category within the system (panels c, d) and the variance in fitness category within species (panels e, f). Panels (a, c) show the effect of metacommunity size JM for a selection of s and μ values shown in different colours. Panels (b, d) show the effect of mutation rate μ for a selection of s and JM values. In the case where n = 1, these results refer to the fitness categories of good species; when n > 1, they refer to the fitness categories of incipient species. Panels (e, f) show within-species variation in c for JM = 10 000 and s = 0.001 with variable μ and n. As n → ∞ all incipient species become lumped into one good species making the within-species variation equal to the variation in the entire system.
Mentions: Simulations of our model show a tight distribution of incipient species fitness (Fig.3a) with a standard deviation that rarely exceeds one fitness category (Fig.4c, d). Individuals thus have similar fitness compared to others alive simultaneously in the same community. As time passes, however, the distribution of fitness categories moves (Fig.3a, b), allowing species to be very different to those alive a long time ago, whereas the shape of the fitness distribution remains relatively constant. The rate at which the modal fitness category progresses is not subject to much variation, even though the model is stochastic (Fig.3b).

Bottom Line: We show that this model generates realistic phylogenies showing a slowdown in diversification and also improves on the ecological predictions of neutral theory by explaining the occurrence of very common species.Moreover, we find the distribution of individual fitness changes over time, with average fitness increasing at a pace that depends positively on community size.Consequently, large communities tend to produce fitter species than smaller communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus