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Unifying ecology and macroevolution with individual-based theory.

Rosindell J, Harmon LJ, Etienne RS - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

Bottom Line: We show that this model generates realistic phylogenies showing a slowdown in diversification and also improves on the ecological predictions of neutral theory by explaining the occurrence of very common species.Moreover, we find the distribution of individual fitness changes over time, with average fitness increasing at a pace that depends positively on community size.Consequently, large communities tend to produce fitter species than smaller communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK.

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Fitness dynamics for parameters JM = 100 000, μ = 0.0001, n = 1, s = 0.01. Panel (a) shows the number of individuals in each fitness category with colours corresponding to different times as indicated in panel (b). The black line in panel (b) shows the modal fitness category as a function of time for a single simulation. Panel (c) shows the mean net per capita birth rate for species over their lifespan from speciation (0) to extinction (1). This depends on the age that the species eventually attains (shown with different colours), the neutral case is included for comparison. Panel (d) shows how the abundance of a species varies over its life for species with lifespans in the range 640–1280 generations. The UTEM with s = 0.01 (blue) is compared to the classic neutral model (red); thicker lines show average behaviour, whereas thin lines show individual species trajectories.
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fig03: Fitness dynamics for parameters JM = 100 000, μ = 0.0001, n = 1, s = 0.01. Panel (a) shows the number of individuals in each fitness category with colours corresponding to different times as indicated in panel (b). The black line in panel (b) shows the modal fitness category as a function of time for a single simulation. Panel (c) shows the mean net per capita birth rate for species over their lifespan from speciation (0) to extinction (1). This depends on the age that the species eventually attains (shown with different colours), the neutral case is included for comparison. Panel (d) shows how the abundance of a species varies over its life for species with lifespans in the range 640–1280 generations. The UTEM with s = 0.01 (blue) is compared to the classic neutral model (red); thicker lines show average behaviour, whereas thin lines show individual species trajectories.

Mentions: Simulations of our model show a tight distribution of incipient species fitness (Fig.3a) with a standard deviation that rarely exceeds one fitness category (Fig.4c, d). Individuals thus have similar fitness compared to others alive simultaneously in the same community. As time passes, however, the distribution of fitness categories moves (Fig.3a, b), allowing species to be very different to those alive a long time ago, whereas the shape of the fitness distribution remains relatively constant. The rate at which the modal fitness category progresses is not subject to much variation, even though the model is stochastic (Fig.3b).


Unifying ecology and macroevolution with individual-based theory.

Rosindell J, Harmon LJ, Etienne RS - Ecol. Lett. (2015)

Fitness dynamics for parameters JM = 100 000, μ = 0.0001, n = 1, s = 0.01. Panel (a) shows the number of individuals in each fitness category with colours corresponding to different times as indicated in panel (b). The black line in panel (b) shows the modal fitness category as a function of time for a single simulation. Panel (c) shows the mean net per capita birth rate for species over their lifespan from speciation (0) to extinction (1). This depends on the age that the species eventually attains (shown with different colours), the neutral case is included for comparison. Panel (d) shows how the abundance of a species varies over its life for species with lifespans in the range 640–1280 generations. The UTEM with s = 0.01 (blue) is compared to the classic neutral model (red); thicker lines show average behaviour, whereas thin lines show individual species trajectories.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403962&req=5

fig03: Fitness dynamics for parameters JM = 100 000, μ = 0.0001, n = 1, s = 0.01. Panel (a) shows the number of individuals in each fitness category with colours corresponding to different times as indicated in panel (b). The black line in panel (b) shows the modal fitness category as a function of time for a single simulation. Panel (c) shows the mean net per capita birth rate for species over their lifespan from speciation (0) to extinction (1). This depends on the age that the species eventually attains (shown with different colours), the neutral case is included for comparison. Panel (d) shows how the abundance of a species varies over its life for species with lifespans in the range 640–1280 generations. The UTEM with s = 0.01 (blue) is compared to the classic neutral model (red); thicker lines show average behaviour, whereas thin lines show individual species trajectories.
Mentions: Simulations of our model show a tight distribution of incipient species fitness (Fig.3a) with a standard deviation that rarely exceeds one fitness category (Fig.4c, d). Individuals thus have similar fitness compared to others alive simultaneously in the same community. As time passes, however, the distribution of fitness categories moves (Fig.3a, b), allowing species to be very different to those alive a long time ago, whereas the shape of the fitness distribution remains relatively constant. The rate at which the modal fitness category progresses is not subject to much variation, even though the model is stochastic (Fig.3b).

Bottom Line: We show that this model generates realistic phylogenies showing a slowdown in diversification and also improves on the ecological predictions of neutral theory by explaining the occurrence of very common species.Moreover, we find the distribution of individual fitness changes over time, with average fitness increasing at a pace that depends positively on community size.Consequently, large communities tend to produce fitter species than smaller communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus