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Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

Anderson NE, Mubanga J, Machila N, Atkinson PM, Dzingirai V, Welburn SC - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe.These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system.We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush Campus, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Edinburgh, EH25 9RG, UK. Neil.Anderson@ed.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife over centuries, based on non-livestock keeping practices largely due to the threat from African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Historical epidemics of human sleeping sickness have influenced how and where communities have settled and have had a profound impact on development in the Valley. Historical attempts to control trypanosomiasis have also had a negative impact on conservation of biodiversity.Centralised control over wildlife utilisation has marginalised local communities from managing the wildlife resource. To some extent this has been reversed by the implementation of community based natural resource management programmes in the latter half of the 20(th) century and the Luangwa Valley provides some of the earliest examples of such programmes. More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe. This has brought changing land-use patterns, most notably agricultural development through livestock keeping and cotton production. These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system. We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean monthly counts for G. pallidipes sampled in the SLNP using Epsilon traps. TH = thicket, RWT = Riverine woodland and thicket (source: RTTCP monthly reports for 1996 and 1997).
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Fig3: Mean monthly counts for G. pallidipes sampled in the SLNP using Epsilon traps. TH = thicket, RWT = Riverine woodland and thicket (source: RTTCP monthly reports for 1996 and 1997).

Mentions: South Luangwa national park (SLNP) was selected as a site for monitoring the effects of the RTTCP and as a consequence research into tsetse and trypanosomiasis was undertaken in the park and surrounding GMA. Considerable data was generated that included investigations into the distribution of trypanosome infections [51], age prevalence of cattle and tsetse populations [52,53], the dynamics of trypanosome infections [54] and the distribution of tsetse species using remotely sensed data and climate data [55,56]. Tsetse densities recorded during monitoring in the SLNP were high, illustrating the suitability of habitat in the Luangwa Valley. The graphs in Figure 3 and Figure 4 below illustrate monthly mean tsetse counts recorded in 1996 and 1997 for G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans sampled using Epsilon traps. Clear seasonal fluctuations in counts are demonstrated in the two vegetation types sampled, particularly for G. m. morsitans. Glossina brevipalpis were also recorded during this period, but only in very small numbers because of the sampling method used and the occupation of a niche habitat close to rivers.Figure 3


Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

Anderson NE, Mubanga J, Machila N, Atkinson PM, Dzingirai V, Welburn SC - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Mean monthly counts for G. pallidipes sampled in the SLNP using Epsilon traps. TH = thicket, RWT = Riverine woodland and thicket (source: RTTCP monthly reports for 1996 and 1997).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403784&req=5

Fig3: Mean monthly counts for G. pallidipes sampled in the SLNP using Epsilon traps. TH = thicket, RWT = Riverine woodland and thicket (source: RTTCP monthly reports for 1996 and 1997).
Mentions: South Luangwa national park (SLNP) was selected as a site for monitoring the effects of the RTTCP and as a consequence research into tsetse and trypanosomiasis was undertaken in the park and surrounding GMA. Considerable data was generated that included investigations into the distribution of trypanosome infections [51], age prevalence of cattle and tsetse populations [52,53], the dynamics of trypanosome infections [54] and the distribution of tsetse species using remotely sensed data and climate data [55,56]. Tsetse densities recorded during monitoring in the SLNP were high, illustrating the suitability of habitat in the Luangwa Valley. The graphs in Figure 3 and Figure 4 below illustrate monthly mean tsetse counts recorded in 1996 and 1997 for G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans sampled using Epsilon traps. Clear seasonal fluctuations in counts are demonstrated in the two vegetation types sampled, particularly for G. m. morsitans. Glossina brevipalpis were also recorded during this period, but only in very small numbers because of the sampling method used and the occupation of a niche habitat close to rivers.Figure 3

Bottom Line: More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe.These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system.We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush Campus, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Edinburgh, EH25 9RG, UK. Neil.Anderson@ed.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife over centuries, based on non-livestock keeping practices largely due to the threat from African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Historical epidemics of human sleeping sickness have influenced how and where communities have settled and have had a profound impact on development in the Valley. Historical attempts to control trypanosomiasis have also had a negative impact on conservation of biodiversity.Centralised control over wildlife utilisation has marginalised local communities from managing the wildlife resource. To some extent this has been reversed by the implementation of community based natural resource management programmes in the latter half of the 20(th) century and the Luangwa Valley provides some of the earliest examples of such programmes. More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe. This has brought changing land-use patterns, most notably agricultural development through livestock keeping and cotton production. These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system. We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus