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Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

Anderson NE, Mubanga J, Machila N, Atkinson PM, Dzingirai V, Welburn SC - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe.These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system.We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush Campus, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Edinburgh, EH25 9RG, UK. Neil.Anderson@ed.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife over centuries, based on non-livestock keeping practices largely due to the threat from African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Historical epidemics of human sleeping sickness have influenced how and where communities have settled and have had a profound impact on development in the Valley. Historical attempts to control trypanosomiasis have also had a negative impact on conservation of biodiversity.Centralised control over wildlife utilisation has marginalised local communities from managing the wildlife resource. To some extent this has been reversed by the implementation of community based natural resource management programmes in the latter half of the 20(th) century and the Luangwa Valley provides some of the earliest examples of such programmes. More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe. This has brought changing land-use patterns, most notably agricultural development through livestock keeping and cotton production. These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system. We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of the national parks and game management areas of the Luangwa Valley. Inset is an outline of the national boundary of Zambia showing the location of the Luangwa Valley.
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Fig1: Map of the national parks and game management areas of the Luangwa Valley. Inset is an outline of the national boundary of Zambia showing the location of the Luangwa Valley.

Mentions: The Luangwa Valley is a prominent geographical and geological feature in north eastern Zambia, covering some 45,000 km2 across the Muchinga, Eastern and Central Provinces of Zambia (Figure 1) [10]. The Luangwa River, flows for 700 km from its source in the Mafinga Hills of northern Zambia to its confluence with the Zambezi River in the south [11]. The valley climate is hot and dry with most of the rainfall occurring between November and March. Vegetation and climatic conditions on the valley floor are ideal for tsetse, but as altitude increases towards the escarpments bounding the valley the suitability for tsetse decreases. The valley hosts an internationally acclaimed diversity of wild fauna with the majority of the typical southern African savannah species represented. Additionally, it contains populations of several globally threatened wildlife species including black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), African painted dog (Lycaon pictus), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Cookson’s wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus cooksoni) and Thornicroft giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis thornicrofti). The Luangwa Valley houses four national parks and has an international reputation for sport hunting on the game management areas (GMAs) surrounding the national parks.Figure 1


Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

Anderson NE, Mubanga J, Machila N, Atkinson PM, Dzingirai V, Welburn SC - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Map of the national parks and game management areas of the Luangwa Valley. Inset is an outline of the national boundary of Zambia showing the location of the Luangwa Valley.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403784&req=5

Fig1: Map of the national parks and game management areas of the Luangwa Valley. Inset is an outline of the national boundary of Zambia showing the location of the Luangwa Valley.
Mentions: The Luangwa Valley is a prominent geographical and geological feature in north eastern Zambia, covering some 45,000 km2 across the Muchinga, Eastern and Central Provinces of Zambia (Figure 1) [10]. The Luangwa River, flows for 700 km from its source in the Mafinga Hills of northern Zambia to its confluence with the Zambezi River in the south [11]. The valley climate is hot and dry with most of the rainfall occurring between November and March. Vegetation and climatic conditions on the valley floor are ideal for tsetse, but as altitude increases towards the escarpments bounding the valley the suitability for tsetse decreases. The valley hosts an internationally acclaimed diversity of wild fauna with the majority of the typical southern African savannah species represented. Additionally, it contains populations of several globally threatened wildlife species including black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), African painted dog (Lycaon pictus), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Cookson’s wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus cooksoni) and Thornicroft giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis thornicrofti). The Luangwa Valley houses four national parks and has an international reputation for sport hunting on the game management areas (GMAs) surrounding the national parks.Figure 1

Bottom Line: More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe.These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system.We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush Campus, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Edinburgh, EH25 9RG, UK. Neil.Anderson@ed.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife over centuries, based on non-livestock keeping practices largely due to the threat from African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Historical epidemics of human sleeping sickness have influenced how and where communities have settled and have had a profound impact on development in the Valley. Historical attempts to control trypanosomiasis have also had a negative impact on conservation of biodiversity.Centralised control over wildlife utilisation has marginalised local communities from managing the wildlife resource. To some extent this has been reversed by the implementation of community based natural resource management programmes in the latter half of the 20(th) century and the Luangwa Valley provides some of the earliest examples of such programmes. More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe. This has brought changing land-use patterns, most notably agricultural development through livestock keeping and cotton production. These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system. We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of disease in the human population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus