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Gene expression profiles in Rana pirica tadpoles following exposure to a predation threat.

Mori T, Yanagisawa Y, Kitani Y, Sugiyama M, Kishida O, Nishimura K - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Thirteen genes were induced specifically by dragonfly larvae, nine others were salamander-specific, and sixteen were induced by both.Functional analyses indicated that some of the genes induced by dragonfly larvae caused an increase in laminins necessary for cell adhesion in the extracellular matrix.The connective tissue of tadpoles exposed to larval salamanders may be looser.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Science and Resources, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, Kameino 1866, Fujisawa, 252-0880, Japan. mori.tsukasa@nihon-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rana pirica tadpoles show morphological changes in response to a predation threat: larvae of the dragonfly Aeshna nigroflava induce heightened tail depth, whereas larval salamander Hynobius retardatus induce a bulgy morphology with heightened tail depth. Although both predators induce similar tail morphologies, it is possible that there are functional differences between these tail morphs.

Results: Here, we performed a discriminant microarray analysis using Xenopus laevis genome arrays to compare tail tissues of control and predator-exposed tadpoles. We identified 9 genes showing large-scale changes in their expression profile: ELAV-like1, methyltransferase like 7A, dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase, laminin subunit beta-1, gremlin 1, BCL6 corepressor-like 1, and three genes of unknown identity. A further 80 genes showed greater than 5 fold differences in expression after exposure to dragonfly larvae and 81 genes showed altered expression after exposure to larval salamanders. Predation-threat responsive genes were identified by selecting genes that reverted to control levels of expression following removal of the predator. Thirteen genes were induced specifically by dragonfly larvae, nine others were salamander-specific, and sixteen were induced by both. Functional analyses indicated that some of the genes induced by dragonfly larvae caused an increase in laminins necessary for cell adhesion in the extracellular matrix. The higher expression of gremlin 1 and HIF1a genes after exposure to dragonfly larvae indicated an in vivo hypoxic reaction, while down-regulation of syndecan-2 may indicate impairment of angiogenesis. Exposure to larval salamanders caused down-regulation of XCIRP-1, which is known to inhibit expression of adhesion molecules; the tadpoles showed reduced expression of cα(E)-catenin, small muscle protein, dystrophin, and myosin light chain genes.

Conclusion: The connective tissue of tadpoles exposed to larval salamanders may be looser. The differences in gene expression profiles induced by the two predators suggest that there are functional differences between the altered tail tissues of the two groups of tadpoles.

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Pathway analysis of nine genes selected by discriminant analysis.
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Fig4: Pathway analysis of nine genes selected by discriminant analysis.

Mentions: The nine genes selected by discriminant analysis were subjected to an IPA pathway analysis using the corresponding human gene. The pathway analysis showed that five of the genes had a protein-protein interaction through ubiquitin C. There was also an mRNA-protein interaction among ELAV-like1, methyltransferase 7A and a hypothetical protein (RAD9-HUS1-RAD1) (Figure 4). The interaction of these proteins belongs to one of the pathways involved in developmental disorders, hereditary disorders and neurological diseases in humans. The postulated interactions regarding these diseases are summarized in Additional file 4: Table S2.Figure 4


Gene expression profiles in Rana pirica tadpoles following exposure to a predation threat.

Mori T, Yanagisawa Y, Kitani Y, Sugiyama M, Kishida O, Nishimura K - BMC Genomics (2015)

Pathway analysis of nine genes selected by discriminant analysis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403775&req=5

Fig4: Pathway analysis of nine genes selected by discriminant analysis.
Mentions: The nine genes selected by discriminant analysis were subjected to an IPA pathway analysis using the corresponding human gene. The pathway analysis showed that five of the genes had a protein-protein interaction through ubiquitin C. There was also an mRNA-protein interaction among ELAV-like1, methyltransferase 7A and a hypothetical protein (RAD9-HUS1-RAD1) (Figure 4). The interaction of these proteins belongs to one of the pathways involved in developmental disorders, hereditary disorders and neurological diseases in humans. The postulated interactions regarding these diseases are summarized in Additional file 4: Table S2.Figure 4

Bottom Line: Thirteen genes were induced specifically by dragonfly larvae, nine others were salamander-specific, and sixteen were induced by both.Functional analyses indicated that some of the genes induced by dragonfly larvae caused an increase in laminins necessary for cell adhesion in the extracellular matrix.The connective tissue of tadpoles exposed to larval salamanders may be looser.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Science and Resources, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, Kameino 1866, Fujisawa, 252-0880, Japan. mori.tsukasa@nihon-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rana pirica tadpoles show morphological changes in response to a predation threat: larvae of the dragonfly Aeshna nigroflava induce heightened tail depth, whereas larval salamander Hynobius retardatus induce a bulgy morphology with heightened tail depth. Although both predators induce similar tail morphologies, it is possible that there are functional differences between these tail morphs.

Results: Here, we performed a discriminant microarray analysis using Xenopus laevis genome arrays to compare tail tissues of control and predator-exposed tadpoles. We identified 9 genes showing large-scale changes in their expression profile: ELAV-like1, methyltransferase like 7A, dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase, laminin subunit beta-1, gremlin 1, BCL6 corepressor-like 1, and three genes of unknown identity. A further 80 genes showed greater than 5 fold differences in expression after exposure to dragonfly larvae and 81 genes showed altered expression after exposure to larval salamanders. Predation-threat responsive genes were identified by selecting genes that reverted to control levels of expression following removal of the predator. Thirteen genes were induced specifically by dragonfly larvae, nine others were salamander-specific, and sixteen were induced by both. Functional analyses indicated that some of the genes induced by dragonfly larvae caused an increase in laminins necessary for cell adhesion in the extracellular matrix. The higher expression of gremlin 1 and HIF1a genes after exposure to dragonfly larvae indicated an in vivo hypoxic reaction, while down-regulation of syndecan-2 may indicate impairment of angiogenesis. Exposure to larval salamanders caused down-regulation of XCIRP-1, which is known to inhibit expression of adhesion molecules; the tadpoles showed reduced expression of cα(E)-catenin, small muscle protein, dystrophin, and myosin light chain genes.

Conclusion: The connective tissue of tadpoles exposed to larval salamanders may be looser. The differences in gene expression profiles induced by the two predators suggest that there are functional differences between the altered tail tissues of the two groups of tadpoles.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus