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Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.

Kotb El-Sayed MI, Amin HK - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Bottom Line: Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups.Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups.Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: The current study's aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.

Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10) or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10). Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone) and h (haloperidol). Healthy male subjects (37) were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17) and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20). Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.

Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.

Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of khat chewing and paranoid schizophrenia on plasma level of dopamine (A) and its related metabolites, DOPAC (B) and HVA (C).Notes: Each value represents as mean ± SEM. *For comparison between khat-chewers and non-chewers between groups and within groups, ▼for comparison between SNKch or SNKcr and HNKc, and ⋄for comparison between SKch or SKcr and HKc. Note that mostly rest of all other comparisons were significant. *,▼P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***,▼▼▼,⋄⋄⋄P<0.001.Abbreviations: H, healthy; N, non; K, khat; c, chewing; S, schizophrenic; h, haloperidol; r, risperidone; DOPAC, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA, homovanillic acid; SE, standard error; SEM, standard error of the mean.
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f1-ndt-11-1067: Effects of khat chewing and paranoid schizophrenia on plasma level of dopamine (A) and its related metabolites, DOPAC (B) and HVA (C).Notes: Each value represents as mean ± SEM. *For comparison between khat-chewers and non-chewers between groups and within groups, ▼for comparison between SNKch or SNKcr and HNKc, and ⋄for comparison between SKch or SKcr and HKc. Note that mostly rest of all other comparisons were significant. *,▼P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***,▼▼▼,⋄⋄⋄P<0.001.Abbreviations: H, healthy; N, non; K, khat; c, chewing; S, schizophrenic; h, haloperidol; r, risperidone; DOPAC, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA, homovanillic acid; SE, standard error; SEM, standard error of the mean.

Mentions: Post hoc tests for all tested groups (multiple comparisons, Tukey’s HSD) in Tables 3–5 show (Figure 1A) significant elevation in DA in all khat chewing groups, while SKch and SKcr groups are showing significant elevation in DA level than HKc group, exhibiting the significant positive effect of khat on DA increment in both SKch and SKcr groups. DOPAC (Figure 1B) is illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome, the unexpected significant increase in SNKcr group. HVA is illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups; SKch group is illustrating significant increase in HVA than SKcr group (Figure 1C).


Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.

Kotb El-Sayed MI, Amin HK - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Effects of khat chewing and paranoid schizophrenia on plasma level of dopamine (A) and its related metabolites, DOPAC (B) and HVA (C).Notes: Each value represents as mean ± SEM. *For comparison between khat-chewers and non-chewers between groups and within groups, ▼for comparison between SNKch or SNKcr and HNKc, and ⋄for comparison between SKch or SKcr and HKc. Note that mostly rest of all other comparisons were significant. *,▼P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***,▼▼▼,⋄⋄⋄P<0.001.Abbreviations: H, healthy; N, non; K, khat; c, chewing; S, schizophrenic; h, haloperidol; r, risperidone; DOPAC, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA, homovanillic acid; SE, standard error; SEM, standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403690&req=5

f1-ndt-11-1067: Effects of khat chewing and paranoid schizophrenia on plasma level of dopamine (A) and its related metabolites, DOPAC (B) and HVA (C).Notes: Each value represents as mean ± SEM. *For comparison between khat-chewers and non-chewers between groups and within groups, ▼for comparison between SNKch or SNKcr and HNKc, and ⋄for comparison between SKch or SKcr and HKc. Note that mostly rest of all other comparisons were significant. *,▼P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***,▼▼▼,⋄⋄⋄P<0.001.Abbreviations: H, healthy; N, non; K, khat; c, chewing; S, schizophrenic; h, haloperidol; r, risperidone; DOPAC, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA, homovanillic acid; SE, standard error; SEM, standard error of the mean.
Mentions: Post hoc tests for all tested groups (multiple comparisons, Tukey’s HSD) in Tables 3–5 show (Figure 1A) significant elevation in DA in all khat chewing groups, while SKch and SKcr groups are showing significant elevation in DA level than HKc group, exhibiting the significant positive effect of khat on DA increment in both SKch and SKcr groups. DOPAC (Figure 1B) is illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome, the unexpected significant increase in SNKcr group. HVA is illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups; SKch group is illustrating significant increase in HVA than SKcr group (Figure 1C).

Bottom Line: Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups.Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups.Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: The current study's aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.

Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10) or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10). Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone) and h (haloperidol). Healthy male subjects (37) were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17) and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20). Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.

Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.

Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus