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Linen most useful: perspectives on structure, chemistry, and enzymes for retting flax.

Akin DE - ISRN Biotechnol (2012)

Bottom Line: Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases.Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns.Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Russell Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30606, USA.

ABSTRACT
The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca(2+) chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ultraviolet microspectrophotometry of thin section of unretted flax stem showing the absorption over a range of 230–350 nm. Spectra CC is of selected cell corners of fiber bundles, ML is middle lamellae, NF is nonfiber region, and S is secondary wall of bast fiber. From [24].
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fig3: Ultraviolet microspectrophotometry of thin section of unretted flax stem showing the absorption over a range of 230–350 nm. Spectra CC is of selected cell corners of fiber bundles, ML is middle lamellae, NF is nonfiber region, and S is secondary wall of bast fiber. From [24].

Mentions: While the question of lignin in bast fibers frequently arises, most data indicate that the amount of aromatics present is small [23, 24, 28]. Localization of aromatics, using histochemical stains [24, 70] and ultraviolet (uv) absorption microspectrophotometry [24] showed that aromatic compounds were limited to middle lamellae and cell corners in bundles, and by far, the greatest levels were in cell corners (Figures 3 and 5). The deposition of aromatics, however, as shown by both methods, was sporadic in the bundles. Furthermore, staining with acid phloroglucinol [48] suggested a coniferyl-type lignin. Other work, however, using solid phase 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectrometry indicated that aromatic material in flax fibers was predominately an anthocyanin, rather than lignin [71]. Spectroscopic analysis of water-soaked, manually-separated, and then enzyme-retted fibers, which were free of all nonfiber materials, indicated only trace aromatics in fibers from fiber- and seed-type flax stems [72]. So, while trace amounts of aromatics are found in fiber bundles, the amount is small and does not appear to impede fiber/core separation in either fiber-type or linseed straw [28]. Often pockets of acid-phloroglucinol staining are observed on fibers, without the presence of obvious shive material, and likely represent a residual from either core or cuticle or the aromatic material from cell corners. Possibly, heavily localized areas of aromatics that remain on retted fiber could influence fiber quality properties [73] or reduce processing efficiency.


Linen most useful: perspectives on structure, chemistry, and enzymes for retting flax.

Akin DE - ISRN Biotechnol (2012)

Ultraviolet microspectrophotometry of thin section of unretted flax stem showing the absorption over a range of 230–350 nm. Spectra CC is of selected cell corners of fiber bundles, ML is middle lamellae, NF is nonfiber region, and S is secondary wall of bast fiber. From [24].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403609&req=5

fig3: Ultraviolet microspectrophotometry of thin section of unretted flax stem showing the absorption over a range of 230–350 nm. Spectra CC is of selected cell corners of fiber bundles, ML is middle lamellae, NF is nonfiber region, and S is secondary wall of bast fiber. From [24].
Mentions: While the question of lignin in bast fibers frequently arises, most data indicate that the amount of aromatics present is small [23, 24, 28]. Localization of aromatics, using histochemical stains [24, 70] and ultraviolet (uv) absorption microspectrophotometry [24] showed that aromatic compounds were limited to middle lamellae and cell corners in bundles, and by far, the greatest levels were in cell corners (Figures 3 and 5). The deposition of aromatics, however, as shown by both methods, was sporadic in the bundles. Furthermore, staining with acid phloroglucinol [48] suggested a coniferyl-type lignin. Other work, however, using solid phase 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectrometry indicated that aromatic material in flax fibers was predominately an anthocyanin, rather than lignin [71]. Spectroscopic analysis of water-soaked, manually-separated, and then enzyme-retted fibers, which were free of all nonfiber materials, indicated only trace aromatics in fibers from fiber- and seed-type flax stems [72]. So, while trace amounts of aromatics are found in fiber bundles, the amount is small and does not appear to impede fiber/core separation in either fiber-type or linseed straw [28]. Often pockets of acid-phloroglucinol staining are observed on fibers, without the presence of obvious shive material, and likely represent a residual from either core or cuticle or the aromatic material from cell corners. Possibly, heavily localized areas of aromatics that remain on retted fiber could influence fiber quality properties [73] or reduce processing efficiency.

Bottom Line: Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases.Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns.Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Russell Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30606, USA.

ABSTRACT
The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca(2+) chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus