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Linen most useful: perspectives on structure, chemistry, and enzymes for retting flax.

Akin DE - ISRN Biotechnol (2012)

Bottom Line: Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases.Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns.Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Russell Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30606, USA.

ABSTRACT
The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca(2+) chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Light micrograph of processed fibers stained with oil red showing cuticle remnants still attached to the fibers.
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fig2: Light micrograph of processed fibers stained with oil red showing cuticle remnants still attached to the fibers.

Mentions: The cuticle resides at the outermost part of the stem (Figure 1). Lipids, including waxes and cutin, and aromatics comprise this layer and provide a protective barrier to water loss and to invading microbial pathogens into the internal stem tissues [24, 25, 39]. The cuticle can be readily observed with the histochemical stain oil red [40, 41], which stains the wax in the cuticle a bright red color and thereby provides a distinctive, visible marker specific for the cuticle (Figure 2). Flax fibers do not stain with oil red, indicating no or a small amount of wax on fibers per se. By staining processed fibers with oil red, a quick, visible assessment of cuticle contamination is possible in “cleaned” flax fiber [25, 40].


Linen most useful: perspectives on structure, chemistry, and enzymes for retting flax.

Akin DE - ISRN Biotechnol (2012)

Light micrograph of processed fibers stained with oil red showing cuticle remnants still attached to the fibers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403609&req=5

fig2: Light micrograph of processed fibers stained with oil red showing cuticle remnants still attached to the fibers.
Mentions: The cuticle resides at the outermost part of the stem (Figure 1). Lipids, including waxes and cutin, and aromatics comprise this layer and provide a protective barrier to water loss and to invading microbial pathogens into the internal stem tissues [24, 25, 39]. The cuticle can be readily observed with the histochemical stain oil red [40, 41], which stains the wax in the cuticle a bright red color and thereby provides a distinctive, visible marker specific for the cuticle (Figure 2). Flax fibers do not stain with oil red, indicating no or a small amount of wax on fibers per se. By staining processed fibers with oil red, a quick, visible assessment of cuticle contamination is possible in “cleaned” flax fiber [25, 40].

Bottom Line: Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases.Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns.Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Russell Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30606, USA.

ABSTRACT
The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca(2+) chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus