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Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters the expression patterns of three key iron homeostasis genes, ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3, and ZmYS1, in S deprived maize plants.

Chorianopoulou SN, Saridis YI, Dimou M, Katinakis P, Bouranis DL - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, total shoot Fe concentration was determined before and after S supply.AM symbiosis prevented Fe deprivation responses in the S deprived maize plants and iron was possibly provided directly to the mycorrhizal plants through the fungal network.Furthermore, sulfate possibly regulated the expression of all three genes revealing its potential role as signal molecule for Fe homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Physiology and Morphology Laboratory, Crop Science Department, Agricultural University of Athens Athens, Greece.

ABSTRACT
Nicotianamine is an essential molecule for Fe homeostasis in plants, its primary precursor is the S-containing compound methionine, and it is biosynthesized by the enzyme family of nicotianamine synthases (NASs). In maize, a graminaceous plant that follows Strategy II for Fe uptake, ZmNAS genes can be subgrouped into two classes, according to their roles and tissue specific expression profiles. In roots, the genes of class I provide NA for the production of deoxymugineic acid (DMA), which is secreted to the rhizosphere and chelates Fe(III). The Fe(III)-DMA complex is then inserted to the root via a ZmYS1 transporter. The genes of class II provide NA for local translocation and detoxification of Fe in the leaves. Due to the connection between S and Fe homeostasis, S deficiency causes Fe deprivation responses to graminaceous plants and when S is supplied, these responses are inverted. In this study, maize plants were grown in pots with sterile river sand containing FePO4 and were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60 from sowing and on that day sulfate was provided to the plants. In order to assess the impact of AM symbiosis on Fe homeostasis, the expression patterns of ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3 (representatives of ZmNAS class I and class II), and ZmYS1 were monitored before and after S supply by means of real time RT-PCR and they were used as indicators of the plant Fe status. In addition, total shoot Fe concentration was determined before and after S supply. AM symbiosis prevented Fe deprivation responses in the S deprived maize plants and iron was possibly provided directly to the mycorrhizal plants through the fungal network. Furthermore, sulfate possibly regulated the expression of all three genes revealing its potential role as signal molecule for Fe homeostasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic illustration of the experimental design. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60; all plants were watered with a nutrient solution deprived of Fe and S and containing a low P concentration (10 μM). On day 60 S was provided to the plants as sulfate. Fe was provided to the plants in the form of sparingly soluble FePO4, throughout the experiment. Samplings took place on days 30, 45, 60 (before S supply), 61 and 62.
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Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the experimental design. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60; all plants were watered with a nutrient solution deprived of Fe and S and containing a low P concentration (10 μM). On day 60 S was provided to the plants as sulfate. Fe was provided to the plants in the form of sparingly soluble FePO4, throughout the experiment. Samplings took place on days 30, 45, 60 (before S supply), 61 and 62.

Mentions: Samplings were performed on days 30, 45, 60, 61 (24 h after sulfur supply), and 62 (48 h after sulfur supply) from sowing and 3 h after the onset of light. The sampling of day 60 took place before the addition of sulfur. A schematic illustration of the experimental design, indicating also the days of the samplings, is presented in Figure 1. Lateral roots as well as two young expanding leaves were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until use. On each experiment, plant material from at least three biological replicates per treatment and sampling day was used. Lateral roots were chosen as root samples for the gene expression analysis because, according to Gutjahr and Paszkowski (2013), in roots of monocotyledon plants AM fungi preferentially colonize lateral roots. The young expanding leaves were chosen as strong sinks of Fe.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters the expression patterns of three key iron homeostasis genes, ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3, and ZmYS1, in S deprived maize plants.

Chorianopoulou SN, Saridis YI, Dimou M, Katinakis P, Bouranis DL - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Schematic illustration of the experimental design. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60; all plants were watered with a nutrient solution deprived of Fe and S and containing a low P concentration (10 μM). On day 60 S was provided to the plants as sulfate. Fe was provided to the plants in the form of sparingly soluble FePO4, throughout the experiment. Samplings took place on days 30, 45, 60 (before S supply), 61 and 62.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403604&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the experimental design. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60; all plants were watered with a nutrient solution deprived of Fe and S and containing a low P concentration (10 μM). On day 60 S was provided to the plants as sulfate. Fe was provided to the plants in the form of sparingly soluble FePO4, throughout the experiment. Samplings took place on days 30, 45, 60 (before S supply), 61 and 62.
Mentions: Samplings were performed on days 30, 45, 60, 61 (24 h after sulfur supply), and 62 (48 h after sulfur supply) from sowing and 3 h after the onset of light. The sampling of day 60 took place before the addition of sulfur. A schematic illustration of the experimental design, indicating also the days of the samplings, is presented in Figure 1. Lateral roots as well as two young expanding leaves were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until use. On each experiment, plant material from at least three biological replicates per treatment and sampling day was used. Lateral roots were chosen as root samples for the gene expression analysis because, according to Gutjahr and Paszkowski (2013), in roots of monocotyledon plants AM fungi preferentially colonize lateral roots. The young expanding leaves were chosen as strong sinks of Fe.

Bottom Line: In addition, total shoot Fe concentration was determined before and after S supply.AM symbiosis prevented Fe deprivation responses in the S deprived maize plants and iron was possibly provided directly to the mycorrhizal plants through the fungal network.Furthermore, sulfate possibly regulated the expression of all three genes revealing its potential role as signal molecule for Fe homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Physiology and Morphology Laboratory, Crop Science Department, Agricultural University of Athens Athens, Greece.

ABSTRACT
Nicotianamine is an essential molecule for Fe homeostasis in plants, its primary precursor is the S-containing compound methionine, and it is biosynthesized by the enzyme family of nicotianamine synthases (NASs). In maize, a graminaceous plant that follows Strategy II for Fe uptake, ZmNAS genes can be subgrouped into two classes, according to their roles and tissue specific expression profiles. In roots, the genes of class I provide NA for the production of deoxymugineic acid (DMA), which is secreted to the rhizosphere and chelates Fe(III). The Fe(III)-DMA complex is then inserted to the root via a ZmYS1 transporter. The genes of class II provide NA for local translocation and detoxification of Fe in the leaves. Due to the connection between S and Fe homeostasis, S deficiency causes Fe deprivation responses to graminaceous plants and when S is supplied, these responses are inverted. In this study, maize plants were grown in pots with sterile river sand containing FePO4 and were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60 from sowing and on that day sulfate was provided to the plants. In order to assess the impact of AM symbiosis on Fe homeostasis, the expression patterns of ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3 (representatives of ZmNAS class I and class II), and ZmYS1 were monitored before and after S supply by means of real time RT-PCR and they were used as indicators of the plant Fe status. In addition, total shoot Fe concentration was determined before and after S supply. AM symbiosis prevented Fe deprivation responses in the S deprived maize plants and iron was possibly provided directly to the mycorrhizal plants through the fungal network. Furthermore, sulfate possibly regulated the expression of all three genes revealing its potential role as signal molecule for Fe homeostasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus