Limits...
Costs of switching auditory spatial attention in following conversational turn-taking.

Lin G, Carlile S - Front Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Switching costs were independent of the location, direction, and angular size of the spatial shift but did appear to be load dependent and only significant for complex questions requiring multiple cognitive operations.Task switching speed (Trail-B time) was also significantly correlated with recall accuracy.Overall, this study highlights (i) the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention and (ii) the important role of working memory in maintaining goal relevant information and extracting meaning from dynamic multi-talker conversations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney Sydney, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Following a multi-talker conversation relies on the ability to rapidly and efficiently shift the focus of spatial attention from one talker to another. The current study investigated the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention during conversational turn-taking in 16 normally-hearing listeners using a novel sentence recall task. Three pairs of syntactically fixed but semantically unpredictable matrix sentences, recorded from a single male talker, were presented concurrently through an array of three loudspeakers (directly ahead and +/-30° azimuth). Subjects attended to one spatial location, cued by a tone, and followed the target conversation from one sentence to the next using the call-sign at the beginning of each sentence. Subjects were required to report the last three words of each sentence (speech recall task) or answer multiple choice questions related to the target material (speech comprehension task). The reading span test, attention network test, and trail making test were also administered to assess working memory, attentional control, and executive function. There was a 10.7 ± 1.3% decrease in word recall, a pronounced primacy effect, and a rise in masker confusion errors and word omissions when the target switched location between sentences. Switching costs were independent of the location, direction, and angular size of the spatial shift but did appear to be load dependent and only significant for complex questions requiring multiple cognitive operations. Reading span scores were positively correlated with total words recalled, and negatively correlated with switching costs and word omissions. Task switching speed (Trail-B time) was also significantly correlated with recall accuracy. Overall, this study highlights (i) the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention and (ii) the important role of working memory in maintaining goal relevant information and extracting meaning from dynamic multi-talker conversations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experiment 2—Percentage of correct responses from sentence 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) for three question types. Bars represent mean ± SEM.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403343&req=5

Figure 5: Experiment 2—Percentage of correct responses from sentence 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) for three question types. Bars represent mean ± SEM.

Mentions: A Three-Way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there was no significant main effect of sentence on performance [F(1, 15) = 1.1, p = 0.3]. The sentence by switch interaction was non-significant [F(1, 15) = 3.1, p = 0.098]. As seen in Figure 5, performance was higher for S1 compared to S2 only under certain conditions. Trends were similar to those observed in Experiment 1 with a small sentence primacy effect evident following a switch in both 1-step and 2-step conditions. This effect was however abolished following a complex 3-step question.


Costs of switching auditory spatial attention in following conversational turn-taking.

Lin G, Carlile S - Front Neurosci (2015)

Experiment 2—Percentage of correct responses from sentence 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) for three question types. Bars represent mean ± SEM.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4403343&req=5

Figure 5: Experiment 2—Percentage of correct responses from sentence 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) for three question types. Bars represent mean ± SEM.
Mentions: A Three-Way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there was no significant main effect of sentence on performance [F(1, 15) = 1.1, p = 0.3]. The sentence by switch interaction was non-significant [F(1, 15) = 3.1, p = 0.098]. As seen in Figure 5, performance was higher for S1 compared to S2 only under certain conditions. Trends were similar to those observed in Experiment 1 with a small sentence primacy effect evident following a switch in both 1-step and 2-step conditions. This effect was however abolished following a complex 3-step question.

Bottom Line: Switching costs were independent of the location, direction, and angular size of the spatial shift but did appear to be load dependent and only significant for complex questions requiring multiple cognitive operations.Task switching speed (Trail-B time) was also significantly correlated with recall accuracy.Overall, this study highlights (i) the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention and (ii) the important role of working memory in maintaining goal relevant information and extracting meaning from dynamic multi-talker conversations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney Sydney, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Following a multi-talker conversation relies on the ability to rapidly and efficiently shift the focus of spatial attention from one talker to another. The current study investigated the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention during conversational turn-taking in 16 normally-hearing listeners using a novel sentence recall task. Three pairs of syntactically fixed but semantically unpredictable matrix sentences, recorded from a single male talker, were presented concurrently through an array of three loudspeakers (directly ahead and +/-30° azimuth). Subjects attended to one spatial location, cued by a tone, and followed the target conversation from one sentence to the next using the call-sign at the beginning of each sentence. Subjects were required to report the last three words of each sentence (speech recall task) or answer multiple choice questions related to the target material (speech comprehension task). The reading span test, attention network test, and trail making test were also administered to assess working memory, attentional control, and executive function. There was a 10.7 ± 1.3% decrease in word recall, a pronounced primacy effect, and a rise in masker confusion errors and word omissions when the target switched location between sentences. Switching costs were independent of the location, direction, and angular size of the spatial shift but did appear to be load dependent and only significant for complex questions requiring multiple cognitive operations. Reading span scores were positively correlated with total words recalled, and negatively correlated with switching costs and word omissions. Task switching speed (Trail-B time) was also significantly correlated with recall accuracy. Overall, this study highlights (i) the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention and (ii) the important role of working memory in maintaining goal relevant information and extracting meaning from dynamic multi-talker conversations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus