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Reducing risks of fetal injury and stillbirths caused by infection/inflammation using healthy behaviors

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Research suggests about 11% of stillbirths (SBs) in developed countries are caused by infection versus WHO-sponsored estimates of 38% worldwide... The Institute of Medicine strongly recommends behavioral approaches for preventing common complex diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke... Using short slogans, such as “safe sex”, or acronyms, such as “DASH”, as well as providing mnemonic prompts, can be helpful for remembering to change personal behaviors... Handwashing is strongly suggested (without formal evidence) for prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy, especially among medical personnel and caretakers of toddlers. “Y” prompts the slogan’s “yes” to walking and exercise, but “no” to insect bites including both 1) mosquitoes which can cause malaria, malaria-like parasitemias, dengue fever agents, West Nile virus and other viral encephalopathies, and 2) multiple tick vectors for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)... The CDC widely recommends means to avoid tick bites (such as avoiding tick-infested areas), routine examination for ticks, and prompt, safe removal if found... Means to prevent mosquito bites include elimination of possible breeding areas and mosquito bed netting in malarial areas.. “G” prompts prevention of gastrointestinal illness, including reducing risks of listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes) and toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) as well as enteropathogens, not only by handwashing, but also by safe food selection, preparation, and handling. “I” prompts performance of CDC-recommended immunizations, including rubella, tetanus, influenza, pertussis, viral hepatitis, and yellow fever, in travellers to endemic areas... Newer vaccines such as the tetrapotent vaccine for dengue fever are proven effective, but not yet recommended in pregnancy... Importantly, meth mothers and their sexual partners can prevent infections including syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections/diseases (STIs/STDs) and HIV by avoiding unsafe sexual practices. “N” stands for “natal” (“pregnancy”) and prompts recognition of pregnancy providers’ “standard of practice” responsibilities to complete recommended screening and indicated treatment of stillbirth-implicated infections including syphilis, rubella, urinary tract infections and bacteriuria, and abnormal vaginal microflora including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and group B Streptococcal infection or colonization... New clinical recommendations to prevent “ascending” intrauterine infection include optimizing labor care to prevent “dystocia” and vigorous screening and treatment of all abnormal vaginal bacteria “dysbiosis”... Intrusive “stripping of membranes” to induce labor is both clinically ineffective and may transmit potential cervico-vaginal pathogenic microorganisms into the uterus... Except for syphilis and both influenza and viral hepatitis which are vaccine-preventable, neither enteroviruses or the more common clinically recognizable infection causes of fetal death have reliably proven primary prevention strategies.

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“HYGIENE” as a students’ mnemonic for healthy behaviors to reduce risk of infection-caused stillbirth or fetal injury
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Figure 1: “HYGIENE” as a students’ mnemonic for healthy behaviors to reduce risk of infection-caused stillbirth or fetal injury

Mentions: Using short slogans, such as “safe sex”, or acronyms, such as “DASH”, as well as providing mnemonic prompts, can be helpful for remembering to change personal behaviors. In this paper, we propose the mnemonic, “HYGIENE”, to assist in promoting safe pregnancy behaviors to reduce risks of common infections associated with stillbirth (Figure 1). (“HYGIENE” also denotes the Greek mythologic goddess of health and healthy behaviors.) Some of these behaviors are listed with the associated potentially preventable illness/agent in Table 1. This list is not meant to be comprehensive, but identifies “high impact pathogens” commonly listed as causing fetal death. Importantly, the commonest is malaria and the most lethal is the hemorrhagic Ebola virus infection.


Reducing risks of fetal injury and stillbirths caused by infection/inflammation using healthy behaviors
“HYGIENE” as a students’ mnemonic for healthy behaviors to reduce risk of infection-caused stillbirth or fetal injury
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4402700&req=5

Figure 1: “HYGIENE” as a students’ mnemonic for healthy behaviors to reduce risk of infection-caused stillbirth or fetal injury
Mentions: Using short slogans, such as “safe sex”, or acronyms, such as “DASH”, as well as providing mnemonic prompts, can be helpful for remembering to change personal behaviors. In this paper, we propose the mnemonic, “HYGIENE”, to assist in promoting safe pregnancy behaviors to reduce risks of common infections associated with stillbirth (Figure 1). (“HYGIENE” also denotes the Greek mythologic goddess of health and healthy behaviors.) Some of these behaviors are listed with the associated potentially preventable illness/agent in Table 1. This list is not meant to be comprehensive, but identifies “high impact pathogens” commonly listed as causing fetal death. Importantly, the commonest is malaria and the most lethal is the hemorrhagic Ebola virus infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Research suggests about 11% of stillbirths (SBs) in developed countries are caused by infection versus WHO-sponsored estimates of 38% worldwide... The Institute of Medicine strongly recommends behavioral approaches for preventing common complex diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke... Using short slogans, such as “safe sex”, or acronyms, such as “DASH”, as well as providing mnemonic prompts, can be helpful for remembering to change personal behaviors... Handwashing is strongly suggested (without formal evidence) for prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy, especially among medical personnel and caretakers of toddlers. “Y” prompts the slogan’s “yes” to walking and exercise, but “no” to insect bites including both 1) mosquitoes which can cause malaria, malaria-like parasitemias, dengue fever agents, West Nile virus and other viral encephalopathies, and 2) multiple tick vectors for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)... The CDC widely recommends means to avoid tick bites (such as avoiding tick-infested areas), routine examination for ticks, and prompt, safe removal if found... Means to prevent mosquito bites include elimination of possible breeding areas and mosquito bed netting in malarial areas.. “G” prompts prevention of gastrointestinal illness, including reducing risks of listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes) and toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) as well as enteropathogens, not only by handwashing, but also by safe food selection, preparation, and handling. “I” prompts performance of CDC-recommended immunizations, including rubella, tetanus, influenza, pertussis, viral hepatitis, and yellow fever, in travellers to endemic areas... Newer vaccines such as the tetrapotent vaccine for dengue fever are proven effective, but not yet recommended in pregnancy... Importantly, meth mothers and their sexual partners can prevent infections including syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections/diseases (STIs/STDs) and HIV by avoiding unsafe sexual practices. “N” stands for “natal” (“pregnancy”) and prompts recognition of pregnancy providers’ “standard of practice” responsibilities to complete recommended screening and indicated treatment of stillbirth-implicated infections including syphilis, rubella, urinary tract infections and bacteriuria, and abnormal vaginal microflora including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and group B Streptococcal infection or colonization... New clinical recommendations to prevent “ascending” intrauterine infection include optimizing labor care to prevent “dystocia” and vigorous screening and treatment of all abnormal vaginal bacteria “dysbiosis”... Intrusive “stripping of membranes” to induce labor is both clinically ineffective and may transmit potential cervico-vaginal pathogenic microorganisms into the uterus... Except for syphilis and both influenza and viral hepatitis which are vaccine-preventable, neither enteroviruses or the more common clinically recognizable infection causes of fetal death have reliably proven primary prevention strategies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus