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A new sensitive sensor for simultaneous differential pulse voltammetric determination of codeine and acetaminophen using a hydroquinone derivative and multiwall carbon nanotubes carbon paste electrode.

Garazhian E, Shishehbore MR - Int J Anal Chem (2015)

Bottom Line: Electron transfer coefficient, α, catalytic electron rate constant, k, and the exchange current density, j 0, for oxidation of codeine at the HTP-MWCNT-CPE were calculated using cyclic voltammetry.The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.2-844.7 μM with two linear segments, and the detection limit of 0.063 μM of codeine was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry.The modified electrode was separated codeine and acetaminophen signals by differential pulse voltammetry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 89195-155, Yazd, Iran.

ABSTRACT
A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for simultaneous determination of codeine and acetaminophen based on 4-hydroxy-2-(triphenylphosphonio)phenolate (HTP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode at trace levels. The sensitivity of codeine determination was deeply affected by spiking multiwall carbon nanotubes and a modifier in carbon paste. Electron transfer coefficient, α, catalytic electron rate constant, k, and the exchange current density, j 0, for oxidation of codeine at the HTP-MWCNT-CPE were calculated using cyclic voltammetry. The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.2-844.7 μM with two linear segments, and the detection limit of 0.063 μM of codeine was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was separated codeine and acetaminophen signals by differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of codeine and acetaminophen in biological and pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results.

No MeSH data available.


Molecular structure of codeine.
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sch1: Molecular structure of codeine.

Mentions: Codeine (3-methyl morphine, see Scheme 1 for molecular structure) is the second most predominant alkaloid in the opium poppy. For the first time, codeine was isolated and recognized while working on refined morphine extraction processes by Pierre Robiquet, the French chemist and pharmacist, in 1832. It has pharmacological and toxicological activity. Based on WHO reports, codeine is currently the most widely used opiate in the world. Also, it is one of the most commonly used drugs overall [1]. Since codeine can be used as recreational drug, a heroin addict may use codeine to ward off the effects of a withdrawal. Codeine and its metabolites can be determined in biological fluids to monitor therapy or screen drug abuse [1, 2]. Therefore, quantitative determination of codeine in biofluids can be attractive for clinical and forensic aims.


A new sensitive sensor for simultaneous differential pulse voltammetric determination of codeine and acetaminophen using a hydroquinone derivative and multiwall carbon nanotubes carbon paste electrode.

Garazhian E, Shishehbore MR - Int J Anal Chem (2015)

Molecular structure of codeine.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4402475&req=5

sch1: Molecular structure of codeine.
Mentions: Codeine (3-methyl morphine, see Scheme 1 for molecular structure) is the second most predominant alkaloid in the opium poppy. For the first time, codeine was isolated and recognized while working on refined morphine extraction processes by Pierre Robiquet, the French chemist and pharmacist, in 1832. It has pharmacological and toxicological activity. Based on WHO reports, codeine is currently the most widely used opiate in the world. Also, it is one of the most commonly used drugs overall [1]. Since codeine can be used as recreational drug, a heroin addict may use codeine to ward off the effects of a withdrawal. Codeine and its metabolites can be determined in biological fluids to monitor therapy or screen drug abuse [1, 2]. Therefore, quantitative determination of codeine in biofluids can be attractive for clinical and forensic aims.

Bottom Line: Electron transfer coefficient, α, catalytic electron rate constant, k, and the exchange current density, j 0, for oxidation of codeine at the HTP-MWCNT-CPE were calculated using cyclic voltammetry.The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.2-844.7 μM with two linear segments, and the detection limit of 0.063 μM of codeine was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry.The modified electrode was separated codeine and acetaminophen signals by differential pulse voltammetry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 89195-155, Yazd, Iran.

ABSTRACT
A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for simultaneous determination of codeine and acetaminophen based on 4-hydroxy-2-(triphenylphosphonio)phenolate (HTP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode at trace levels. The sensitivity of codeine determination was deeply affected by spiking multiwall carbon nanotubes and a modifier in carbon paste. Electron transfer coefficient, α, catalytic electron rate constant, k, and the exchange current density, j 0, for oxidation of codeine at the HTP-MWCNT-CPE were calculated using cyclic voltammetry. The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.2-844.7 μM with two linear segments, and the detection limit of 0.063 μM of codeine was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was separated codeine and acetaminophen signals by differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of codeine and acetaminophen in biological and pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results.

No MeSH data available.