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Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity.

van Klink R, van der Plas F, van Noordwijk CG, WallisDeVries MF, Olff H - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2014)

Bottom Line: To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web.We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions.We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Community and Conservation Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Research focus of 141 published studies assessing the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity, conducted in open landscapes (grass- or heathlands) with arthropods identified to species level. (A) Studied taxa, (B) taxonomic spread (number of investigated taxa), (C) duration of sampling, (D) geographic location, and (E) year of publication (until 2012). We documented the identity of the most commonly assessed taxonomic groups (usually to order level, but sometimes to family or class level). A complete list of the analysed studies and definitions of arthropod groups can be found in Tables S1 and S3. *Arachnids: spiders, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions; **other groups: Mantodea, Phasmatodea, Neuroptera, Dermaptera.
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fig01: Research focus of 141 published studies assessing the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity, conducted in open landscapes (grass- or heathlands) with arthropods identified to species level. (A) Studied taxa, (B) taxonomic spread (number of investigated taxa), (C) duration of sampling, (D) geographic location, and (E) year of publication (until 2012). We documented the identity of the most commonly assessed taxonomic groups (usually to order level, but sometimes to family or class level). A complete list of the analysed studies and definitions of arthropod groups can be found in Tables S1 and S3. *Arachnids: spiders, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions; **other groups: Mantodea, Phasmatodea, Neuroptera, Dermaptera.

Mentions: Our search yielded 141 studies assessing the effects of large herbivores on arthropod communities published between 1940 and May 2013, sometimes in combination with other management types (see online Table S1). An overview of the taxonomic and geographic focus of all 141 studies is given in Fig. 1. Ground beetles, butterflies and grasshoppers have been studied most extensively, while other, sometimes extremely species-rich groups, such as parasitic Hymenoptera, (non-syrphid) flies and aphids have received virtually no attention (Fig. 1A). More than half of the studies assessed only one taxonomic group, with less than 25% of studies assessing more than two arthropod taxa (Fig. 1B). The number of years that arthropods were sampled during these studies varied: in about half of the studies arthropods were sampled for only 1 year while only during two studies were data collected for 8 years or more (Fig. 1C).


Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity.

van Klink R, van der Plas F, van Noordwijk CG, WallisDeVries MF, Olff H - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2014)

Research focus of 141 published studies assessing the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity, conducted in open landscapes (grass- or heathlands) with arthropods identified to species level. (A) Studied taxa, (B) taxonomic spread (number of investigated taxa), (C) duration of sampling, (D) geographic location, and (E) year of publication (until 2012). We documented the identity of the most commonly assessed taxonomic groups (usually to order level, but sometimes to family or class level). A complete list of the analysed studies and definitions of arthropod groups can be found in Tables S1 and S3. *Arachnids: spiders, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions; **other groups: Mantodea, Phasmatodea, Neuroptera, Dermaptera.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4402009&req=5

fig01: Research focus of 141 published studies assessing the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity, conducted in open landscapes (grass- or heathlands) with arthropods identified to species level. (A) Studied taxa, (B) taxonomic spread (number of investigated taxa), (C) duration of sampling, (D) geographic location, and (E) year of publication (until 2012). We documented the identity of the most commonly assessed taxonomic groups (usually to order level, but sometimes to family or class level). A complete list of the analysed studies and definitions of arthropod groups can be found in Tables S1 and S3. *Arachnids: spiders, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions; **other groups: Mantodea, Phasmatodea, Neuroptera, Dermaptera.
Mentions: Our search yielded 141 studies assessing the effects of large herbivores on arthropod communities published between 1940 and May 2013, sometimes in combination with other management types (see online Table S1). An overview of the taxonomic and geographic focus of all 141 studies is given in Fig. 1. Ground beetles, butterflies and grasshoppers have been studied most extensively, while other, sometimes extremely species-rich groups, such as parasitic Hymenoptera, (non-syrphid) flies and aphids have received virtually no attention (Fig. 1A). More than half of the studies assessed only one taxonomic group, with less than 25% of studies assessing more than two arthropod taxa (Fig. 1B). The number of years that arthropods were sampled during these studies varied: in about half of the studies arthropods were sampled for only 1 year while only during two studies were data collected for 8 years or more (Fig. 1C).

Bottom Line: To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web.We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions.We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Community and Conservation Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus