Musical tasks targeting preserved and impaired functions in two dementias.
Bottom Line: Behavioral and neural evidence confirms involvement of perceptual networks in imagery, and these are relatively spared in early stages of the illness.Thus, we expected patients to have relatively intact imagery in a mental pitch comparison task.We probed inhibitory skills by asking for a speeded pitch or timbre judgment when the irrelevant dimension was held constant or also changed.
Affiliation: Psychology Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: We next examined response times, our measure of primary interest. Because PD and age can affect speed of responses, all reaction times were converted to Z-scores so that response times were normalized. A regression model considered age, years of training, condition, and patient status. This analysis revealed a significant influence of age (β = 0.005, CI = −0.008 to −0.002, P = 0.003) but not years of musical training (β = 0.001, CI = −0.004 to 0.002, P = 0.513). Wald tests revealed no main effect of patient group (F(1,21) = 1.77, P = 0.20) but a significant main effect of condition (F(8,21) = 58.22, P < 0.00001). There was a significant interaction between condition and patient group for RT performance (F(8,21) = 7.00, P = 0.0002). Further Wald tests to determine which differences seemed to be driving the interaction showed that patients and controls differed significantly in their reaction times for single-dimension–only timbre discrimination (block 2: t = −2.5, P = 0.02), blocked presentation pitch with no irrelevant dimension (block 3a: t = 2.17, P = 0.04), timbre with no irrelevant dimension (block 3c: t = −3.58, P = 0.002), and mixed-presentation timbre with irrelevant dimension (block 4d: t = 2.33, P = 0.03; Fig.2).
Affiliation: Psychology Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.