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Social pathways for Ebola virus disease in rural Sierra Leone, and some implications for containment.

Richards P, Amara J, Ferme MC, Kamara P, Mokuwa E, Sheriff AI, Suluku R, Voors M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection.A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease.Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences, Njala University, Njala University Campus, Njala, Sierra Leone.

ABSTRACT
The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic-the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

a-d: Village dependencies, migration for marriage, work and education.Figure (a) plots village social, economic and political dependencies. Source: Community Survey (S4 Dataset) in 91 villages in Eastern Sierra Leone in Malema, Makpele, Nomo, Gaura, Tunkia, Koya and Barri Chiefdoms. Map plots the village dependencies as indicated in a community focus group meeting with arrows going to the location the village depends on socially, economically and politically. Figure (b)-(d) use Household Survey (S5 Dataset) under 2460 respondents in 187 villages. Figure plots the migration patterns (origin and destination) for six randomly selected villages for household members who left the household for marriage, work or education during 2000–2010. In total we recorded data on 4208 migration decisions. Of these, 20% are for marriage, 36% are for attending school and 17% to work elsewhere. Work migration is for trading, mining, labourer for cash crop production and urbanisation. Location of Kenema is approximate.
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pntd.0003567.g004: a-d: Village dependencies, migration for marriage, work and education.Figure (a) plots village social, economic and political dependencies. Source: Community Survey (S4 Dataset) in 91 villages in Eastern Sierra Leone in Malema, Makpele, Nomo, Gaura, Tunkia, Koya and Barri Chiefdoms. Map plots the village dependencies as indicated in a community focus group meeting with arrows going to the location the village depends on socially, economically and politically. Figure (b)-(d) use Household Survey (S5 Dataset) under 2460 respondents in 187 villages. Figure plots the migration patterns (origin and destination) for six randomly selected villages for household members who left the household for marriage, work or education during 2000–2010. In total we recorded data on 4208 migration decisions. Of these, 20% are for marriage, 36% are for attending school and 17% to work elsewhere. Work migration is for trading, mining, labourer for cash crop production and urbanisation. Location of Kenema is approximate.

Mentions: Our data are intended to convey a picture of some of this local complexity, relevant to understanding of rural Ebola transmission risks. Below, in Fig 4A, we picture some typical village dependencies in seven chiefdoms bordering the Gola forest. All seven chiefdoms look to Kenema as their regional administrative and market center. The map is based on asking focus groups of village elders in 91 villages what other villages they depended on, in terms of political, social and economic relations. Arrows point to the village depended upon.


Social pathways for Ebola virus disease in rural Sierra Leone, and some implications for containment.

Richards P, Amara J, Ferme MC, Kamara P, Mokuwa E, Sheriff AI, Suluku R, Voors M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

a-d: Village dependencies, migration for marriage, work and education.Figure (a) plots village social, economic and political dependencies. Source: Community Survey (S4 Dataset) in 91 villages in Eastern Sierra Leone in Malema, Makpele, Nomo, Gaura, Tunkia, Koya and Barri Chiefdoms. Map plots the village dependencies as indicated in a community focus group meeting with arrows going to the location the village depends on socially, economically and politically. Figure (b)-(d) use Household Survey (S5 Dataset) under 2460 respondents in 187 villages. Figure plots the migration patterns (origin and destination) for six randomly selected villages for household members who left the household for marriage, work or education during 2000–2010. In total we recorded data on 4208 migration decisions. Of these, 20% are for marriage, 36% are for attending school and 17% to work elsewhere. Work migration is for trading, mining, labourer for cash crop production and urbanisation. Location of Kenema is approximate.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401769&req=5

pntd.0003567.g004: a-d: Village dependencies, migration for marriage, work and education.Figure (a) plots village social, economic and political dependencies. Source: Community Survey (S4 Dataset) in 91 villages in Eastern Sierra Leone in Malema, Makpele, Nomo, Gaura, Tunkia, Koya and Barri Chiefdoms. Map plots the village dependencies as indicated in a community focus group meeting with arrows going to the location the village depends on socially, economically and politically. Figure (b)-(d) use Household Survey (S5 Dataset) under 2460 respondents in 187 villages. Figure plots the migration patterns (origin and destination) for six randomly selected villages for household members who left the household for marriage, work or education during 2000–2010. In total we recorded data on 4208 migration decisions. Of these, 20% are for marriage, 36% are for attending school and 17% to work elsewhere. Work migration is for trading, mining, labourer for cash crop production and urbanisation. Location of Kenema is approximate.
Mentions: Our data are intended to convey a picture of some of this local complexity, relevant to understanding of rural Ebola transmission risks. Below, in Fig 4A, we picture some typical village dependencies in seven chiefdoms bordering the Gola forest. All seven chiefdoms look to Kenema as their regional administrative and market center. The map is based on asking focus groups of village elders in 91 villages what other villages they depended on, in terms of political, social and economic relations. Arrows point to the village depended upon.

Bottom Line: Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection.A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease.Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences, Njala University, Njala University Campus, Njala, Sierra Leone.

ABSTRACT
The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic-the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus