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Social pathways for Ebola virus disease in rural Sierra Leone, and some implications for containment.

Richards P, Amara J, Ferme MC, Kamara P, Mokuwa E, Sheriff AI, Suluku R, Voors M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection.A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease.Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences, Njala University, Njala University Campus, Njala, Sierra Leone.

ABSTRACT
The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic-the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A,B: Trust and seeking help by type of institution.ABC Household Survey (S3 Dataset), 2200 respondents in 117. The graph plots mean response and 95% confidence interval upper and lower bound. Panel A asks respondents “How much do you trust [institution]? “, responses are on a five point scale ranging from “Not at all” to “Completely”. For Panel B, respondents are asked “If you were in trouble, would you go to these people for help?”, responses are on a three point scale ranging “No never” to “Definitely”.
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pntd.0003567.g003: A,B: Trust and seeking help by type of institution.ABC Household Survey (S3 Dataset), 2200 respondents in 117. The graph plots mean response and 95% confidence interval upper and lower bound. Panel A asks respondents “How much do you trust [institution]? “, responses are on a five point scale ranging from “Not at all” to “Completely”. For Panel B, respondents are asked “If you were in trouble, would you go to these people for help?”, responses are on a three point scale ranging “No never” to “Definitely”.

Mentions: In Fig 3A, we present data on how respondents rate their trust in various institutions. The data show that while overall trust is high, inter-personal relations are perceived as more trustworthy than those with institutions beyond the local level. Trust is highest in household members and extended family. Conversely (at the local level) there is a noticeable distrust of "strangers" (persons born outside the local community). Thereafter there is a general decline in trust as the scale of the institution expands beyond the local level. Trust in central government, however, is above the trend.


Social pathways for Ebola virus disease in rural Sierra Leone, and some implications for containment.

Richards P, Amara J, Ferme MC, Kamara P, Mokuwa E, Sheriff AI, Suluku R, Voors M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

A,B: Trust and seeking help by type of institution.ABC Household Survey (S3 Dataset), 2200 respondents in 117. The graph plots mean response and 95% confidence interval upper and lower bound. Panel A asks respondents “How much do you trust [institution]? “, responses are on a five point scale ranging from “Not at all” to “Completely”. For Panel B, respondents are asked “If you were in trouble, would you go to these people for help?”, responses are on a three point scale ranging “No never” to “Definitely”.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401769&req=5

pntd.0003567.g003: A,B: Trust and seeking help by type of institution.ABC Household Survey (S3 Dataset), 2200 respondents in 117. The graph plots mean response and 95% confidence interval upper and lower bound. Panel A asks respondents “How much do you trust [institution]? “, responses are on a five point scale ranging from “Not at all” to “Completely”. For Panel B, respondents are asked “If you were in trouble, would you go to these people for help?”, responses are on a three point scale ranging “No never” to “Definitely”.
Mentions: In Fig 3A, we present data on how respondents rate their trust in various institutions. The data show that while overall trust is high, inter-personal relations are perceived as more trustworthy than those with institutions beyond the local level. Trust is highest in household members and extended family. Conversely (at the local level) there is a noticeable distrust of "strangers" (persons born outside the local community). Thereafter there is a general decline in trust as the scale of the institution expands beyond the local level. Trust in central government, however, is above the trend.

Bottom Line: Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection.A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease.Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences, Njala University, Njala University Campus, Njala, Sierra Leone.

ABSTRACT
The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic-the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus