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Essential amino acids in the gluten-free diet and serum in relation to depression in patients with celiac disease.

van Hees NJ, Giltay EJ, Tielemans SM, Geleijnse JM, Puvill T, Janssen N, van der Does W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The intake of vegetable protein was significantly lower in CD patients than in healthy controls (mean difference of 7.8 g/d; 95% CI: 4.7-10.8), as were serum concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan (all p < 0.005).However, within the CD patient group, the presence of major depressive disorder (n = 42) was not associated with intake or serum levels of essential amino acids.Despite its potential adverse effect, intake and serum levels of essential amino acids were not related to major depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, possibly due to deficiencies in micronutrients in the gluten-free diet. We aimed to investigate whether essential amino acids (i.e., the precursors of serotonin, dopamine and other neurotransmitters) are depleted in the diet and serum of CD patients with major depressive disorder.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study we assessed dietary intake of amino acids and serum levels of amino acids, in 77 CD patients on a gluten-free diet and in 33 healthy controls. Major depressive disorder was assessed with structured interviews (using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus). Dietary intake was assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire.

Results: Participants had a mean age of 55 years and 74% were women. The intake of vegetable protein was significantly lower in CD patients than in healthy controls (mean difference of 7.8 g/d; 95% CI: 4.7-10.8), as were serum concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan (all p < 0.005). However, within the CD patient group, the presence of major depressive disorder (n = 42) was not associated with intake or serum levels of essential amino acids.

Conclusions: Patients with CD on a long-term gluten-free diet, with good adherence, consume significantly less vegetable protein than controls, and their serum levels of several essential amino acids were also lower. Despite its potential adverse effect, intake and serum levels of essential amino acids were not related to major depression.

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Dietary intake and serum levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in controls and celiac disease patients with and without depression.
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pone.0122619.g003: Dietary intake and serum levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in controls and celiac disease patients with and without depression.

Mentions: Within CD patients, we also compared the mean amino acid levels and ratios in serum and dietary intake between the never- and lifetime major depressive disorder groups using ANCOVA adjusting for covariates. Overall, amino acid intake and serum values were lower in patients with a lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis, but they did not differ significantly from values in those without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (Tables 2 and 3). Results for the three essential amino acids are depicted in Fig 3.


Essential amino acids in the gluten-free diet and serum in relation to depression in patients with celiac disease.

van Hees NJ, Giltay EJ, Tielemans SM, Geleijnse JM, Puvill T, Janssen N, van der Does W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Dietary intake and serum levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in controls and celiac disease patients with and without depression.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401736&req=5

pone.0122619.g003: Dietary intake and serum levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in controls and celiac disease patients with and without depression.
Mentions: Within CD patients, we also compared the mean amino acid levels and ratios in serum and dietary intake between the never- and lifetime major depressive disorder groups using ANCOVA adjusting for covariates. Overall, amino acid intake and serum values were lower in patients with a lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis, but they did not differ significantly from values in those without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (Tables 2 and 3). Results for the three essential amino acids are depicted in Fig 3.

Bottom Line: The intake of vegetable protein was significantly lower in CD patients than in healthy controls (mean difference of 7.8 g/d; 95% CI: 4.7-10.8), as were serum concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan (all p < 0.005).However, within the CD patient group, the presence of major depressive disorder (n = 42) was not associated with intake or serum levels of essential amino acids.Despite its potential adverse effect, intake and serum levels of essential amino acids were not related to major depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, possibly due to deficiencies in micronutrients in the gluten-free diet. We aimed to investigate whether essential amino acids (i.e., the precursors of serotonin, dopamine and other neurotransmitters) are depleted in the diet and serum of CD patients with major depressive disorder.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study we assessed dietary intake of amino acids and serum levels of amino acids, in 77 CD patients on a gluten-free diet and in 33 healthy controls. Major depressive disorder was assessed with structured interviews (using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus). Dietary intake was assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire.

Results: Participants had a mean age of 55 years and 74% were women. The intake of vegetable protein was significantly lower in CD patients than in healthy controls (mean difference of 7.8 g/d; 95% CI: 4.7-10.8), as were serum concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan (all p < 0.005). However, within the CD patient group, the presence of major depressive disorder (n = 42) was not associated with intake or serum levels of essential amino acids.

Conclusions: Patients with CD on a long-term gluten-free diet, with good adherence, consume significantly less vegetable protein than controls, and their serum levels of several essential amino acids were also lower. Despite its potential adverse effect, intake and serum levels of essential amino acids were not related to major depression.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus