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Dual logic and cerebral coordinates for reciprocal interaction in eye contact.

Lee RF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Elucidated by dual logic deductions, the cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction suggests: the exogenous and endogenous systems consist of the empathy network and the mentalization network respectively; the default-mode network emerges from the resting state to activation in the endogenous system during reciprocal interaction; the cingulate plays an essential role in the emergence from the exogenous system to the endogenous system.Overall, the dual logic deductions are supported by the dfMRI experimental results and are consistent with current literature.Both the theoretical framework and experimental method set the stage to formally apply the scientific method in studying complex social interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In order to scientifically study the human brain's response to face-to-face social interaction, the scientific method itself needs to be reconsidered so that both quantitative observation and symbolic reasoning can be adapted to the situation where the observer is also observed. In light of the recent development of dyadic fMRI which can directly observe dyadic brain interacting in one MRI scanner, this paper aims to establish a new form of logic, dual logic, which provides a theoretical platform for deductive reasoning in a complementary dual system with emergence mechanism. Applying the dual logic in the dfMRI experimental design and data analysis, the exogenous and endogenous dual systems in the BOLD responses can be identified; the non-reciprocal responses in the dual system can be suppressed; a cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction can be generated. Elucidated by dual logic deductions, the cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction suggests: the exogenous and endogenous systems consist of the empathy network and the mentalization network respectively; the default-mode network emerges from the resting state to activation in the endogenous system during reciprocal interaction; the cingulate plays an essential role in the emergence from the exogenous system to the endogenous system. Overall, the dual logic deductions are supported by the dfMRI experimental results and are consistent with current literature. Both the theoretical framework and experimental method set the stage to formally apply the scientific method in studying complex social interaction.

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The outline of the dfMRI eye contact experiments.The (a) illustrates the dual-head coil and the dyadic placement in a commercial MRI scanner; the (b) is a 3D rendering of a dyadic anatomical data set, which illustrates the physical stimuli and BOLD responses in the experiments; the (c) depicts the temporal courses of dyadic stimuli: eye opening and/or closing in the task A and B.
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pone.0121791.g001: The outline of the dfMRI eye contact experiments.The (a) illustrates the dual-head coil and the dyadic placement in a commercial MRI scanner; the (b) is a 3D rendering of a dyadic anatomical data set, which illustrates the physical stimuli and BOLD responses in the experiments; the (c) depicts the temporal courses of dyadic stimuli: eye opening and/or closing in the task A and B.

Mentions: In order to observe reciprocity in eye contact, the dfMRI experiment was designed as follows: Two subjects are laid on their sides, facing each other as in Fig 1a. The relative positions of their eyes and faces are locked in position as shown in Fig 1b to create a “laboratory eye contact” scenario. Two functional tasks are performed as shown in Fig 1c. During the tasks, the two subjects are verbally instructed to open and close their eyes either simultaneously in task A, or alternately in task B.


Dual logic and cerebral coordinates for reciprocal interaction in eye contact.

Lee RF - PLoS ONE (2015)

The outline of the dfMRI eye contact experiments.The (a) illustrates the dual-head coil and the dyadic placement in a commercial MRI scanner; the (b) is a 3D rendering of a dyadic anatomical data set, which illustrates the physical stimuli and BOLD responses in the experiments; the (c) depicts the temporal courses of dyadic stimuli: eye opening and/or closing in the task A and B.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401735&req=5

pone.0121791.g001: The outline of the dfMRI eye contact experiments.The (a) illustrates the dual-head coil and the dyadic placement in a commercial MRI scanner; the (b) is a 3D rendering of a dyadic anatomical data set, which illustrates the physical stimuli and BOLD responses in the experiments; the (c) depicts the temporal courses of dyadic stimuli: eye opening and/or closing in the task A and B.
Mentions: In order to observe reciprocity in eye contact, the dfMRI experiment was designed as follows: Two subjects are laid on their sides, facing each other as in Fig 1a. The relative positions of their eyes and faces are locked in position as shown in Fig 1b to create a “laboratory eye contact” scenario. Two functional tasks are performed as shown in Fig 1c. During the tasks, the two subjects are verbally instructed to open and close their eyes either simultaneously in task A, or alternately in task B.

Bottom Line: Elucidated by dual logic deductions, the cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction suggests: the exogenous and endogenous systems consist of the empathy network and the mentalization network respectively; the default-mode network emerges from the resting state to activation in the endogenous system during reciprocal interaction; the cingulate plays an essential role in the emergence from the exogenous system to the endogenous system.Overall, the dual logic deductions are supported by the dfMRI experimental results and are consistent with current literature.Both the theoretical framework and experimental method set the stage to formally apply the scientific method in studying complex social interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In order to scientifically study the human brain's response to face-to-face social interaction, the scientific method itself needs to be reconsidered so that both quantitative observation and symbolic reasoning can be adapted to the situation where the observer is also observed. In light of the recent development of dyadic fMRI which can directly observe dyadic brain interacting in one MRI scanner, this paper aims to establish a new form of logic, dual logic, which provides a theoretical platform for deductive reasoning in a complementary dual system with emergence mechanism. Applying the dual logic in the dfMRI experimental design and data analysis, the exogenous and endogenous dual systems in the BOLD responses can be identified; the non-reciprocal responses in the dual system can be suppressed; a cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction can be generated. Elucidated by dual logic deductions, the cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction suggests: the exogenous and endogenous systems consist of the empathy network and the mentalization network respectively; the default-mode network emerges from the resting state to activation in the endogenous system during reciprocal interaction; the cingulate plays an essential role in the emergence from the exogenous system to the endogenous system. Overall, the dual logic deductions are supported by the dfMRI experimental results and are consistent with current literature. Both the theoretical framework and experimental method set the stage to formally apply the scientific method in studying complex social interaction.

Show MeSH