Limits...
Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

Kundu A, Patel A, Paul S, Pal A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen.T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield.In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700054, West Bengal, India.

ABSTRACT
Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histograms of the differentially expressed ESTs in VMR84 and T9 after grouping into respective functional categories.ESTs were evaluated for their predicted biological functions through MIPS funcat. The horizontal bars represent the % share of an ontology term determined against the total number of ESTs. Dark and light shaded bars indicate the proportion of induced and repressed ESTs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401676&req=5

pone.0124687.g003: Histograms of the differentially expressed ESTs in VMR84 and T9 after grouping into respective functional categories.ESTs were evaluated for their predicted biological functions through MIPS funcat. The horizontal bars represent the % share of an ontology term determined against the total number of ESTs. Dark and light shaded bars indicate the proportion of induced and repressed ESTs.

Mentions: ESTs were subsequently categorized into 9 different functional categories based on their putative functions (Fig 3) providing a broad impression on the types of modulated genes in the evaluated genotypes. Majority of ESTs are under the metabolism category that was altered during both compatible (24.8%) and incompatible (18.6%) interactions. ESTs involved in various metabolic pathways like glycolysis (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase), kreb cycle (malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase) and photorespiration (glycolate oxidase, serine glyoxylate aminotransferase) showed up regulation in their expression. Several enzymes (cysteine synthase, tryptophan synthase) implicated in amino acid biosynthesis were also overrepresented during incompatible reaction. A significant portion of these ESTs also belongs to the class ‘signal transduction’ showing a higher percentage (6.9%) in the resistant library than in the susceptible libraries (4.4%). Expression of genes coding for protein kinases (MAPK6, STKs), and calcium signaling (calmodulin, calreticulin) were also abundant in VMR84. Modulations of ESTs under “transport” category was higher during incompatible (8%) than compatible (2.7%) interactions, that includes putative potassium transporter, H+-ATPases etc. Sizable differences in the number of ESTs were also observed in the category “transcription”. At least 8.5% of SSH clones comprises transcription category in resistant library, while the number declined to 4.4% in the susceptible genotype. The known stress-responsive transcription factors and regulators including WD repeat-containing protein, WRKY, ZF and bHLH are the key components of this category. Although 12% of the ESTs in the susceptible genotype correspond to stress and defence related genes, defence as a category remains overrepresented in resistant VMR84 (16%). Amongst these, several are implicated in pathogen recognition (NBS-LRR, ankyrin, RLKs), oxidative stress (GST, PRX, SOD, TRX), heat shock proteins (HSP90) and other abiotic stresses (CPRD14, CPRD32). Transcripts coding for pathogenesis related proteins such as PR1, PR5 and PR17 having direct role in host immunity were also abundant in the library of incompatible interaction.


Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

Kundu A, Patel A, Paul S, Pal A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Histograms of the differentially expressed ESTs in VMR84 and T9 after grouping into respective functional categories.ESTs were evaluated for their predicted biological functions through MIPS funcat. The horizontal bars represent the % share of an ontology term determined against the total number of ESTs. Dark and light shaded bars indicate the proportion of induced and repressed ESTs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401676&req=5

pone.0124687.g003: Histograms of the differentially expressed ESTs in VMR84 and T9 after grouping into respective functional categories.ESTs were evaluated for their predicted biological functions through MIPS funcat. The horizontal bars represent the % share of an ontology term determined against the total number of ESTs. Dark and light shaded bars indicate the proportion of induced and repressed ESTs.
Mentions: ESTs were subsequently categorized into 9 different functional categories based on their putative functions (Fig 3) providing a broad impression on the types of modulated genes in the evaluated genotypes. Majority of ESTs are under the metabolism category that was altered during both compatible (24.8%) and incompatible (18.6%) interactions. ESTs involved in various metabolic pathways like glycolysis (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase), kreb cycle (malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase) and photorespiration (glycolate oxidase, serine glyoxylate aminotransferase) showed up regulation in their expression. Several enzymes (cysteine synthase, tryptophan synthase) implicated in amino acid biosynthesis were also overrepresented during incompatible reaction. A significant portion of these ESTs also belongs to the class ‘signal transduction’ showing a higher percentage (6.9%) in the resistant library than in the susceptible libraries (4.4%). Expression of genes coding for protein kinases (MAPK6, STKs), and calcium signaling (calmodulin, calreticulin) were also abundant in VMR84. Modulations of ESTs under “transport” category was higher during incompatible (8%) than compatible (2.7%) interactions, that includes putative potassium transporter, H+-ATPases etc. Sizable differences in the number of ESTs were also observed in the category “transcription”. At least 8.5% of SSH clones comprises transcription category in resistant library, while the number declined to 4.4% in the susceptible genotype. The known stress-responsive transcription factors and regulators including WD repeat-containing protein, WRKY, ZF and bHLH are the key components of this category. Although 12% of the ESTs in the susceptible genotype correspond to stress and defence related genes, defence as a category remains overrepresented in resistant VMR84 (16%). Amongst these, several are implicated in pathogen recognition (NBS-LRR, ankyrin, RLKs), oxidative stress (GST, PRX, SOD, TRX), heat shock proteins (HSP90) and other abiotic stresses (CPRD14, CPRD32). Transcripts coding for pathogenesis related proteins such as PR1, PR5 and PR17 having direct role in host immunity were also abundant in the library of incompatible interaction.

Bottom Line: A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen.T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield.In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700054, West Bengal, India.

ABSTRACT
Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus