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Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

Kundu A, Patel A, Paul S, Pal A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen.T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield.In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700054, West Bengal, India.

ABSTRACT
Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dynamics of MYMIV infection in V. mungo. A.Expression of yellow mosaic symptoms in MYMIV-inoculated susceptible (left) and asymptomatic resistant (right) plants at 15 dpi. B. Levels of MYMIV-DNA in leaves of inoculated susceptible and resistant plants at different sampling periods. Levels of virus population were monitored in planta by qPCR amplification of the CP-DNA from the TNA extracted from inoculated leaf samples at 0, 5, 10 and 15 dpi. The mean values of three biological replicates are presented in the graph. Error bars represent the SDs.
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pone.0124687.g002: Dynamics of MYMIV infection in V. mungo. A.Expression of yellow mosaic symptoms in MYMIV-inoculated susceptible (left) and asymptomatic resistant (right) plants at 15 dpi. B. Levels of MYMIV-DNA in leaves of inoculated susceptible and resistant plants at different sampling periods. Levels of virus population were monitored in planta by qPCR amplification of the CP-DNA from the TNA extracted from inoculated leaf samples at 0, 5, 10 and 15 dpi. The mean values of three biological replicates are presented in the graph. Error bars represent the SDs.

Mentions: Fate of artificial MYMIV-infection was evaluated based on phenotypic changes along with molecular detection of the MYMIV coat protein (CP) fragment. In the present study, 10 plants from each genotype were challenged with the virus and the phenotypic responses revealed highly resistant nature of VMR84 while T9 demonstrated a susceptible reaction. Development of yellow mosaic pattern on leaves was intimately observed in susceptible plants that started with the appearance of bright yellow specks ultimately coalescing into larger lesions. Although V. mungo plants were fully symptomatic at 15 dpi, visual symptoms started appearing from 5–7 dpi in the compatible host while establishment of pathogen was severely impaired in resistant VMR84 (Fig 2A). Assuming that the fraction of viral DNA corresponds to the degree of infection, quantitation of MYMIV coat protein (CP) fragment was carried out for a period upto 15 dpi (Fig 2B) to assess the viral titer within inoculated foliar tissue. Low levels of MYMIV-CP were observed in resistant VMR84 plants indicating hindrance in virus proliferation thereby restricting spread of the disease. In contrast, exponential accumulation of MYMIV-CP was reported 5 dpi onwards in susceptible T9. Finally at 15 dpi, a surge in pathogen population reached 1000-fold higher in susceptible T9 than the level calculated in resistant VMR84 genotype correlating with the symptomatic changes in leaf morphology. The results also showed that the mock-inoculated controls remained asymptomatic at all the evaluated time points (data not shown).


Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

Kundu A, Patel A, Paul S, Pal A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Dynamics of MYMIV infection in V. mungo. A.Expression of yellow mosaic symptoms in MYMIV-inoculated susceptible (left) and asymptomatic resistant (right) plants at 15 dpi. B. Levels of MYMIV-DNA in leaves of inoculated susceptible and resistant plants at different sampling periods. Levels of virus population were monitored in planta by qPCR amplification of the CP-DNA from the TNA extracted from inoculated leaf samples at 0, 5, 10 and 15 dpi. The mean values of three biological replicates are presented in the graph. Error bars represent the SDs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401676&req=5

pone.0124687.g002: Dynamics of MYMIV infection in V. mungo. A.Expression of yellow mosaic symptoms in MYMIV-inoculated susceptible (left) and asymptomatic resistant (right) plants at 15 dpi. B. Levels of MYMIV-DNA in leaves of inoculated susceptible and resistant plants at different sampling periods. Levels of virus population were monitored in planta by qPCR amplification of the CP-DNA from the TNA extracted from inoculated leaf samples at 0, 5, 10 and 15 dpi. The mean values of three biological replicates are presented in the graph. Error bars represent the SDs.
Mentions: Fate of artificial MYMIV-infection was evaluated based on phenotypic changes along with molecular detection of the MYMIV coat protein (CP) fragment. In the present study, 10 plants from each genotype were challenged with the virus and the phenotypic responses revealed highly resistant nature of VMR84 while T9 demonstrated a susceptible reaction. Development of yellow mosaic pattern on leaves was intimately observed in susceptible plants that started with the appearance of bright yellow specks ultimately coalescing into larger lesions. Although V. mungo plants were fully symptomatic at 15 dpi, visual symptoms started appearing from 5–7 dpi in the compatible host while establishment of pathogen was severely impaired in resistant VMR84 (Fig 2A). Assuming that the fraction of viral DNA corresponds to the degree of infection, quantitation of MYMIV coat protein (CP) fragment was carried out for a period upto 15 dpi (Fig 2B) to assess the viral titer within inoculated foliar tissue. Low levels of MYMIV-CP were observed in resistant VMR84 plants indicating hindrance in virus proliferation thereby restricting spread of the disease. In contrast, exponential accumulation of MYMIV-CP was reported 5 dpi onwards in susceptible T9. Finally at 15 dpi, a surge in pathogen population reached 1000-fold higher in susceptible T9 than the level calculated in resistant VMR84 genotype correlating with the symptomatic changes in leaf morphology. The results also showed that the mock-inoculated controls remained asymptomatic at all the evaluated time points (data not shown).

Bottom Line: A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen.T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield.In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700054, West Bengal, India.

ABSTRACT
Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in this orphan crop would be useful for integrating MYMIV-tolerance trait in susceptible cultivars of V. mungo.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus