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Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population.

Dare S, Mackay DF, Pell JP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years).Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom; School of Nursing, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a general perception that smoking protects against weight gain and this may influence commencement and continuation of smoking, especially among young women.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from UK Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between smoking and obesity; defined as body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2. Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.

Results: The study comprised 499,504 adults aged 31 to 69 years. Overall, current smokers were less likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.81-0.86). However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years). Former smokers were more likely to be obese than both current smokers (adjusted OR 1.33 95% CI 1.30-1.37) and never smokers (adjusted OR 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.15). Among smokers, the risk of obesity increased with the amount smoked and former heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than former light smokers (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% 1.56-1.64, p<0.001). Risk of obesity fell with time from quitting. After 30 years, former smokers still had higher risk of obesity than current smokers but the same risk as never smokers.

Conclusion: Beliefs that smoking protects against obesity may be over-simplistic; especially among younger and heavier smokers. Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions should include weight management support.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Forest plot of adjusted* odds ratio for obesity and lifetime consumption of cigarette smoked (pack years) among current smokers.* adjusted for levels of physical activity and alcohol consumption, and presence of hypertension and diabetes as well as gender, age, and socioeconomic deprivation decile.
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pone.0123579.g001: Forest plot of adjusted* odds ratio for obesity and lifetime consumption of cigarette smoked (pack years) among current smokers.* adjusted for levels of physical activity and alcohol consumption, and presence of hypertension and diabetes as well as gender, age, and socioeconomic deprivation decile.

Mentions: Among current smokers, the prevalence of obesity did not vary significantly according to duration of smoking but did increase with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day and, therefore, also with pack years (Table 2). Logistic regression analysis showed a dose relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily by current smokers and obesity. Univariate analyses showed that current heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes per day) were more likely to be obese than both moderate (10–20 cigarettes per day) (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37–1.57, p<0.001) and light (<10 cigarettes per day) smokers (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.86–2.21, p<0.001), and moderate smokers were more likely to be obese than light smokers (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.29–1.48, p<0.001). The results remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic deprivation decile, level of physical activity and alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes. However, compared with light smokers, the increased risk was slightly attenuated among both heavy (adjusted OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.70–2.05, p<0.001) and moderate (adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.39–1.37, p<0.001) smokers. Among current smokers, there was also a dose relationship between pack years and obesity (Fig 1). Compared to current smokers with less than 10 pack years of consumption, the adjusted odds of obesity for those with >50 pack years was 1.90 (95% CI 1.68–2.15, p<0.001). In comparison with never smokers, light (adjusted OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.61–0.70, p<0.001) and moderate (adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77–0.82, p<0.001) current smokers were less likely to be obese. However, heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17, p = 0.01).


Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population.

Dare S, Mackay DF, Pell JP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Forest plot of adjusted* odds ratio for obesity and lifetime consumption of cigarette smoked (pack years) among current smokers.* adjusted for levels of physical activity and alcohol consumption, and presence of hypertension and diabetes as well as gender, age, and socioeconomic deprivation decile.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401671&req=5

pone.0123579.g001: Forest plot of adjusted* odds ratio for obesity and lifetime consumption of cigarette smoked (pack years) among current smokers.* adjusted for levels of physical activity and alcohol consumption, and presence of hypertension and diabetes as well as gender, age, and socioeconomic deprivation decile.
Mentions: Among current smokers, the prevalence of obesity did not vary significantly according to duration of smoking but did increase with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day and, therefore, also with pack years (Table 2). Logistic regression analysis showed a dose relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily by current smokers and obesity. Univariate analyses showed that current heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes per day) were more likely to be obese than both moderate (10–20 cigarettes per day) (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37–1.57, p<0.001) and light (<10 cigarettes per day) smokers (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.86–2.21, p<0.001), and moderate smokers were more likely to be obese than light smokers (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.29–1.48, p<0.001). The results remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic deprivation decile, level of physical activity and alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes. However, compared with light smokers, the increased risk was slightly attenuated among both heavy (adjusted OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.70–2.05, p<0.001) and moderate (adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.39–1.37, p<0.001) smokers. Among current smokers, there was also a dose relationship between pack years and obesity (Fig 1). Compared to current smokers with less than 10 pack years of consumption, the adjusted odds of obesity for those with >50 pack years was 1.90 (95% CI 1.68–2.15, p<0.001). In comparison with never smokers, light (adjusted OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.61–0.70, p<0.001) and moderate (adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77–0.82, p<0.001) current smokers were less likely to be obese. However, heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17, p = 0.01).

Bottom Line: Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years).Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom; School of Nursing, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a general perception that smoking protects against weight gain and this may influence commencement and continuation of smoking, especially among young women.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from UK Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between smoking and obesity; defined as body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2. Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.

Results: The study comprised 499,504 adults aged 31 to 69 years. Overall, current smokers were less likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.81-0.86). However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years). Former smokers were more likely to be obese than both current smokers (adjusted OR 1.33 95% CI 1.30-1.37) and never smokers (adjusted OR 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.15). Among smokers, the risk of obesity increased with the amount smoked and former heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than former light smokers (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% 1.56-1.64, p<0.001). Risk of obesity fell with time from quitting. After 30 years, former smokers still had higher risk of obesity than current smokers but the same risk as never smokers.

Conclusion: Beliefs that smoking protects against obesity may be over-simplistic; especially among younger and heavier smokers. Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions should include weight management support.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus