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Differential gene expression in foxtail millet during incompatible interaction with Uromyces setariae-italicae.

Li ZY, Wang N, Dong L, Bai H, Quan JZ, Liu L, Dong ZP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes.Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1.This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of plant protect, Millet Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, National Foxtail Millet Improvement Center, Minor Cereal Crops Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China.

ABSTRACT
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important food and fodder grain crop that is grown for human consumption. Production of this species is affected by several plant diseases, such as rust. The cultivar Shilixiang has been identified as resistant to the foxtail millet rust pathogen, Uromyces setariae-italicae. In order to identify signaling pathways and genes related to the plant's defense mechanisms against rust, the Shilixiang cultivar was used to construct a digital gene expression (DGE) library during the interaction of foxtail millet with U. setariae-italicae. In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to analyze the expression of nine selected genes, and the patterns observed agreed well with DGE analysis. Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1. This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Change in gene expression of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.
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pone.0123825.g005: Change in gene expression of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.

Mentions: The activation of phenylpropanoid metabolism, in which phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first committed step of the core pathway, is a sign of plant responses to incompatible pathogens [35]. PAL is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, such as monolignols, isoflavones, isoflavanones and stilbenes. Significant induction of PAL in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was observed in our study, similar to results observed in other plant-pathogen incompatible interactions. For example, upon inoculation with Phaeoisariopsis personata, PAL transcript levels increase in peanut plants [36]. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalyzes 4-hydroxylation of cinnamic acid, which is an obligatory step in the biosynthesis of some phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, lignans, and stilbenes that are related to disease resistance in plants [37]. In this study, cytochrome P450 was involved in four pathways: biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis. Therefore, the increase of PAL and CYP450 in our study could be related with millet resistance to infection by U. setariae-italicae (Fig 5).


Differential gene expression in foxtail millet during incompatible interaction with Uromyces setariae-italicae.

Li ZY, Wang N, Dong L, Bai H, Quan JZ, Liu L, Dong ZP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Change in gene expression of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401669&req=5

pone.0123825.g005: Change in gene expression of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.
Mentions: The activation of phenylpropanoid metabolism, in which phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first committed step of the core pathway, is a sign of plant responses to incompatible pathogens [35]. PAL is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, such as monolignols, isoflavones, isoflavanones and stilbenes. Significant induction of PAL in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was observed in our study, similar to results observed in other plant-pathogen incompatible interactions. For example, upon inoculation with Phaeoisariopsis personata, PAL transcript levels increase in peanut plants [36]. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalyzes 4-hydroxylation of cinnamic acid, which is an obligatory step in the biosynthesis of some phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, lignans, and stilbenes that are related to disease resistance in plants [37]. In this study, cytochrome P450 was involved in four pathways: biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis. Therefore, the increase of PAL and CYP450 in our study could be related with millet resistance to infection by U. setariae-italicae (Fig 5).

Bottom Line: In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes.Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1.This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of plant protect, Millet Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, National Foxtail Millet Improvement Center, Minor Cereal Crops Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China.

ABSTRACT
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important food and fodder grain crop that is grown for human consumption. Production of this species is affected by several plant diseases, such as rust. The cultivar Shilixiang has been identified as resistant to the foxtail millet rust pathogen, Uromyces setariae-italicae. In order to identify signaling pathways and genes related to the plant's defense mechanisms against rust, the Shilixiang cultivar was used to construct a digital gene expression (DGE) library during the interaction of foxtail millet with U. setariae-italicae. In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to analyze the expression of nine selected genes, and the patterns observed agreed well with DGE analysis. Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1. This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus