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Differential gene expression in foxtail millet during incompatible interaction with Uromyces setariae-italicae.

Li ZY, Wang N, Dong L, Bai H, Quan JZ, Liu L, Dong ZP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes.Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1.This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of plant protect, Millet Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, National Foxtail Millet Improvement Center, Minor Cereal Crops Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China.

ABSTRACT
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important food and fodder grain crop that is grown for human consumption. Production of this species is affected by several plant diseases, such as rust. The cultivar Shilixiang has been identified as resistant to the foxtail millet rust pathogen, Uromyces setariae-italicae. In order to identify signaling pathways and genes related to the plant's defense mechanisms against rust, the Shilixiang cultivar was used to construct a digital gene expression (DGE) library during the interaction of foxtail millet with U. setariae-italicae. In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to analyze the expression of nine selected genes, and the patterns observed agreed well with DGE analysis. Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1. This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

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Change in gene expression of the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.
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pone.0123825.g004: Change in gene expression of the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.

Mentions: Protein kinases are known to be involved directly in plant resistance; they play a central role in signaling during pathogen recognition and the subsequent activation of plant defense mechanisms. We identified four kinds of protein kinases—serine/threonine protein kinase, receptor-like kinase (RLK), calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)—that were up-regulated in the millet-rust plant-pathogen interactions. CDPK has been reported to trigger the production of ROS in response to pathogen infection in potato and tobacco [27, 28]. In the millet-rust interaction, NADPH oxidase Rboh was phosphorylated by CDPK, which was activated by elicitor-induced calcium influx. Co-infiltration of CDPK with Rboh led to the rapid production of ROS, which was accompanied by HR and resulted in resistance to the fungus (Fig 4). Cai et al. isolated and functionally analyzed a MAPKK gene ZmMKK1 in maize group A, and found that the expression patterns of ZmMKK1 were triggered by pathogen attack [29]. In our study, DGE analysis indicated that MAPKs of foxtail millet were up-regulated during interaction with U. setariae-italicae. Hence, we speculated that attack by the pathogen may have activated MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 and MEKK1-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascades in the plants. WRKY proteins are among the identified substrates of the pathogen-responsive MAP-kinase-signaling cascades, and might function as a component in the MAP-kinases-signaling pathway involved in pathogen-induced HR [30, 31]. WRKY transcription factor, such us WRKY70 and WRKY60, were generally up-regulated in this study. WRKY proteins might be phosphorylated by MPK4 and MPK3/6, enhancing their DNA-binding and transcription activating activities. WRKY transcription factors may then activate WRKY-regulated genes, particularly defense-related genes, to fend off the invasion of U. setariae-italicae (Fig 4).


Differential gene expression in foxtail millet during incompatible interaction with Uromyces setariae-italicae.

Li ZY, Wang N, Dong L, Bai H, Quan JZ, Liu L, Dong ZP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Change in gene expression of the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401669&req=5

pone.0123825.g004: Change in gene expression of the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in foxtail millet 48h post-inoculation.Genes that up-regulated are marked with red borders while Genes that down-regulated are marked with green borders. Genes that did not change are marked with black borders.
Mentions: Protein kinases are known to be involved directly in plant resistance; they play a central role in signaling during pathogen recognition and the subsequent activation of plant defense mechanisms. We identified four kinds of protein kinases—serine/threonine protein kinase, receptor-like kinase (RLK), calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)—that were up-regulated in the millet-rust plant-pathogen interactions. CDPK has been reported to trigger the production of ROS in response to pathogen infection in potato and tobacco [27, 28]. In the millet-rust interaction, NADPH oxidase Rboh was phosphorylated by CDPK, which was activated by elicitor-induced calcium influx. Co-infiltration of CDPK with Rboh led to the rapid production of ROS, which was accompanied by HR and resulted in resistance to the fungus (Fig 4). Cai et al. isolated and functionally analyzed a MAPKK gene ZmMKK1 in maize group A, and found that the expression patterns of ZmMKK1 were triggered by pathogen attack [29]. In our study, DGE analysis indicated that MAPKs of foxtail millet were up-regulated during interaction with U. setariae-italicae. Hence, we speculated that attack by the pathogen may have activated MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 and MEKK1-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascades in the plants. WRKY proteins are among the identified substrates of the pathogen-responsive MAP-kinase-signaling cascades, and might function as a component in the MAP-kinases-signaling pathway involved in pathogen-induced HR [30, 31]. WRKY transcription factor, such us WRKY70 and WRKY60, were generally up-regulated in this study. WRKY proteins might be phosphorylated by MPK4 and MPK3/6, enhancing their DNA-binding and transcription activating activities. WRKY transcription factors may then activate WRKY-regulated genes, particularly defense-related genes, to fend off the invasion of U. setariae-italicae (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes.Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1.This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of plant protect, Millet Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, National Foxtail Millet Improvement Center, Minor Cereal Crops Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China.

ABSTRACT
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important food and fodder grain crop that is grown for human consumption. Production of this species is affected by several plant diseases, such as rust. The cultivar Shilixiang has been identified as resistant to the foxtail millet rust pathogen, Uromyces setariae-italicae. In order to identify signaling pathways and genes related to the plant's defense mechanisms against rust, the Shilixiang cultivar was used to construct a digital gene expression (DGE) library during the interaction of foxtail millet with U. setariae-italicae. In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to analyze the expression of nine selected genes, and the patterns observed agreed well with DGE analysis. Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1. This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus