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Invariant domain watermarking using heaviside function of order alpha and fractional Gaussian field.

Abbasi A, Woo CS, Ibrahim RW, Islam S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A cross correlation method based on the fractional Gaussian field is used for watermark detection.Furthermore the proposed method enables blind watermark detection where the original image is not required during the watermark detection thereby making it more practical than non-blind watermarking techniques.Experimental results confirmed that the proposed technique has a high level of robustness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Digital image watermarking is an important technique for the authentication of multimedia content and copyright protection. Conventional digital image watermarking techniques are often vulnerable to geometric distortions such as Rotation, Scaling, and Translation (RST). These distortions desynchronize the watermark information embedded in an image and thus disable watermark detection. To solve this problem, we propose an RST invariant domain watermarking technique based on fractional calculus. We have constructed a domain using Heaviside function of order alpha (HFOA). The HFOA models the signal as a polynomial for watermark embedding. The watermark is embedded in all the coefficients of the image. We have also constructed a fractional variance formula using fractional Gaussian field. A cross correlation method based on the fractional Gaussian field is used for watermark detection. Furthermore the proposed method enables blind watermark detection where the original image is not required during the watermark detection thereby making it more practical than non-blind watermarking techniques. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed technique has a high level of robustness.

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Robustness against rotation attack.The rotated images have also been scaled and cropped. (a-d) Original Test Images, (e-h) Attacked watermarked Test Images: Rotation attack for different values of the angles are taken such as 5, 10, 15 and 30 degree respectively.
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pone.0123427.g008: Robustness against rotation attack.The rotated images have also been scaled and cropped. (a-d) Original Test Images, (e-h) Attacked watermarked Test Images: Rotation attack for different values of the angles are taken such as 5, 10, 15 and 30 degree respectively.

Mentions: Robustness against RST attack had been tested successfully. Fig 5, represents the correlation value of five watermark images after the circular shift attack. The correlation value of the attack image remains above the threshold value which confirm that the proposed technique is robust against the circular shift attack. The circular shift operation is set as the 50% of the image size. It circularly shift the image pixels rows and columns. The circular shift operation has been described in Fig 6. Fig 7a–7d), represent the correlation values of four watermark images after scaling attack using scaling factors ranging from 0.5 to 2.0, ρ remains well above the Tρ (i.e., threshold). Therefore, the results suggest that the proposed method is robust against the scaling attack. Last but not the least Figs 8 and 9, represents the performance of the proposed technique against rotation attack. Fig 9 represent the comparison of correlation value against the threshold value, after the rotation attack. The result confirms that the proposed technique is robust against the rotation attack. Fig 10, shows image after performing the cropping attack with cropping area of different size such as 25 × 26 pixels, 54 × 54 pixels and 149 × 149 pixels. The result shows high level of robustness of our proposed technique as the watermark has been detected in all the images.


Invariant domain watermarking using heaviside function of order alpha and fractional Gaussian field.

Abbasi A, Woo CS, Ibrahim RW, Islam S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Robustness against rotation attack.The rotated images have also been scaled and cropped. (a-d) Original Test Images, (e-h) Attacked watermarked Test Images: Rotation attack for different values of the angles are taken such as 5, 10, 15 and 30 degree respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401616&req=5

pone.0123427.g008: Robustness against rotation attack.The rotated images have also been scaled and cropped. (a-d) Original Test Images, (e-h) Attacked watermarked Test Images: Rotation attack for different values of the angles are taken such as 5, 10, 15 and 30 degree respectively.
Mentions: Robustness against RST attack had been tested successfully. Fig 5, represents the correlation value of five watermark images after the circular shift attack. The correlation value of the attack image remains above the threshold value which confirm that the proposed technique is robust against the circular shift attack. The circular shift operation is set as the 50% of the image size. It circularly shift the image pixels rows and columns. The circular shift operation has been described in Fig 6. Fig 7a–7d), represent the correlation values of four watermark images after scaling attack using scaling factors ranging from 0.5 to 2.0, ρ remains well above the Tρ (i.e., threshold). Therefore, the results suggest that the proposed method is robust against the scaling attack. Last but not the least Figs 8 and 9, represents the performance of the proposed technique against rotation attack. Fig 9 represent the comparison of correlation value against the threshold value, after the rotation attack. The result confirms that the proposed technique is robust against the rotation attack. Fig 10, shows image after performing the cropping attack with cropping area of different size such as 25 × 26 pixels, 54 × 54 pixels and 149 × 149 pixels. The result shows high level of robustness of our proposed technique as the watermark has been detected in all the images.

Bottom Line: A cross correlation method based on the fractional Gaussian field is used for watermark detection.Furthermore the proposed method enables blind watermark detection where the original image is not required during the watermark detection thereby making it more practical than non-blind watermarking techniques.Experimental results confirmed that the proposed technique has a high level of robustness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Digital image watermarking is an important technique for the authentication of multimedia content and copyright protection. Conventional digital image watermarking techniques are often vulnerable to geometric distortions such as Rotation, Scaling, and Translation (RST). These distortions desynchronize the watermark information embedded in an image and thus disable watermark detection. To solve this problem, we propose an RST invariant domain watermarking technique based on fractional calculus. We have constructed a domain using Heaviside function of order alpha (HFOA). The HFOA models the signal as a polynomial for watermark embedding. The watermark is embedded in all the coefficients of the image. We have also constructed a fractional variance formula using fractional Gaussian field. A cross correlation method based on the fractional Gaussian field is used for watermark detection. Furthermore the proposed method enables blind watermark detection where the original image is not required during the watermark detection thereby making it more practical than non-blind watermarking techniques. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed technique has a high level of robustness.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus