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Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

Barbosa C, García-Martínez J, Pérez-Ortín JE, Mendes-Ferreira A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations.A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed.The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Agricultural Genomics and Biotechnology (CGBA) Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal; Universitat de Valência, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y E.R.I. Biotecmed, València, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the grape-musts and the development of strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations.

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Venn diagrams for genes whose expression was significantly altered in the three wine yeast strains in LN and HN fermentations.Red indicated genes whose expression was altered in CEG, green in QA23 and violet in VL1.
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pone.0122709.g004: Venn diagrams for genes whose expression was significantly altered in the three wine yeast strains in LN and HN fermentations.Red indicated genes whose expression was altered in CEG, green in QA23 and violet in VL1.

Mentions: Even though the strains displayed dissimilar gene expression levels across fermentation (LN and HN), we asked if there is a “conservation” of the wine yeast strains response to N-availability during fermentation. For this purpose, the significantly differentially expressed genes between conditions (LN/HN), for each strain were pair-wise compared at each fermentation stage (Fig 4 and S3 Fig). The high number of genes differentially expressed in each of the wine strains under LN and HN fermentations (Fig 4) showed that their response was distinct at each fermentation stage and within the nitrogen regimes analyzed. Maximal expression variability among the three yeast strains was reached at the initial fermentation stages in agreement with pair-wise correlation values calculated between different time points for the different strains (See S3 Fig).


Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

Barbosa C, García-Martínez J, Pérez-Ortín JE, Mendes-Ferreira A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Venn diagrams for genes whose expression was significantly altered in the three wine yeast strains in LN and HN fermentations.Red indicated genes whose expression was altered in CEG, green in QA23 and violet in VL1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401569&req=5

pone.0122709.g004: Venn diagrams for genes whose expression was significantly altered in the three wine yeast strains in LN and HN fermentations.Red indicated genes whose expression was altered in CEG, green in QA23 and violet in VL1.
Mentions: Even though the strains displayed dissimilar gene expression levels across fermentation (LN and HN), we asked if there is a “conservation” of the wine yeast strains response to N-availability during fermentation. For this purpose, the significantly differentially expressed genes between conditions (LN/HN), for each strain were pair-wise compared at each fermentation stage (Fig 4 and S3 Fig). The high number of genes differentially expressed in each of the wine strains under LN and HN fermentations (Fig 4) showed that their response was distinct at each fermentation stage and within the nitrogen regimes analyzed. Maximal expression variability among the three yeast strains was reached at the initial fermentation stages in agreement with pair-wise correlation values calculated between different time points for the different strains (See S3 Fig).

Bottom Line: For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations.A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed.The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Agricultural Genomics and Biotechnology (CGBA) Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal; Universitat de Valência, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y E.R.I. Biotecmed, València, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the grape-musts and the development of strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus