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Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

Li Z, Zhao B, Wang Q, Cao X, Zhang J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure.There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009.The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

No MeSH data available.


Principal component analysis of the composition of functional groups obtained from 1999 and 2009, separately.Vertical and horizontal bars represent the standard deviations (n = 3). Each point represents a specific SOC chemical structure in fertilization or CK treatments. Points that are close together are more similar to one another than points that are far apart.
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pone.0124359.g003: Principal component analysis of the composition of functional groups obtained from 1999 and 2009, separately.Vertical and horizontal bars represent the standard deviations (n = 3). Each point represents a specific SOC chemical structure in fertilization or CK treatments. Points that are close together are more similar to one another than points that are far apart.

Mentions: Principal component analysis (PCA) based on the relative abundances of functional groups showed that SOC chemical composition responded significantly to the fertilization strategies, while the patterns differed between 1999 and 2009 (Fig 3). Specifically, the points reflecting fertilization treatments were more scattered in 1999 than in 2009, as indicated by the following two facts. First, the PC1 and PC2 values ranged from—1.48 to 1.53 and—1.34 to 1.15, respectively, in 1999, and in 2009 from—1.04 to 1.85 and—1.54 to 0.63, respectively; that is, PC1 and PC2 axes had wider ranges in 1999 than in 2009. Second, the points were significantly separated from each other in most cases in 1999, while in 2009 three clusters could be identified. In 2009, the OM and 1/2OM treatments were clearly separated from all others on PC1 and formed a first cluster. The NPK, NP and PK treatments formed a second cluster. The third cluster contained NK and CK treatments. These findings indicate that the functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time of fertilizer application.


Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

Li Z, Zhao B, Wang Q, Cao X, Zhang J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Principal component analysis of the composition of functional groups obtained from 1999 and 2009, separately.Vertical and horizontal bars represent the standard deviations (n = 3). Each point represents a specific SOC chemical structure in fertilization or CK treatments. Points that are close together are more similar to one another than points that are far apart.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401563&req=5

pone.0124359.g003: Principal component analysis of the composition of functional groups obtained from 1999 and 2009, separately.Vertical and horizontal bars represent the standard deviations (n = 3). Each point represents a specific SOC chemical structure in fertilization or CK treatments. Points that are close together are more similar to one another than points that are far apart.
Mentions: Principal component analysis (PCA) based on the relative abundances of functional groups showed that SOC chemical composition responded significantly to the fertilization strategies, while the patterns differed between 1999 and 2009 (Fig 3). Specifically, the points reflecting fertilization treatments were more scattered in 1999 than in 2009, as indicated by the following two facts. First, the PC1 and PC2 values ranged from—1.48 to 1.53 and—1.34 to 1.15, respectively, in 1999, and in 2009 from—1.04 to 1.85 and—1.54 to 0.63, respectively; that is, PC1 and PC2 axes had wider ranges in 1999 than in 2009. Second, the points were significantly separated from each other in most cases in 1999, while in 2009 three clusters could be identified. In 2009, the OM and 1/2OM treatments were clearly separated from all others on PC1 and formed a first cluster. The NPK, NP and PK treatments formed a second cluster. The third cluster contained NK and CK treatments. These findings indicate that the functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time of fertilizer application.

Bottom Line: We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure.There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009.The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

No MeSH data available.