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Urban household carbon emission and contributing factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

Xu X, Tan Y, Chen S, Yang G, Su W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation.This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China.Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region--Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

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Population and per capita GDP across 16 major cities in the Yangtze River Delta, 2010.This is the Fig. 1 legend. Created with the ArcGIS 10.0 software. Notes: Figures shown in bars of the map were calculated based on 2010 China Census data, and measured in 1,000 persons for population and Chinese yuan for per capita GDP (USD 1 = RMB 6.77 yuan, the annual average exchange rate in 2010). First-tier cities include three provincial capitals (Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing), each with a population of 5 million or more. Second-tier cities are large-scale cities with a population of 3–5 million, which includes three cities (Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo). Third-tier cities are medium-scale cities with a population of 1–3 million, including Taizhou (Zhejiang), Shaoxing, Nantong, Changzhou, Jiaxing, and Zhenjiang. Fourth-tier cities are the relatively small-scale cities of Yangzhou, Huzhou, Zhoushan, and Taizhou (Jiangsu).
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pone.0121604.g001: Population and per capita GDP across 16 major cities in the Yangtze River Delta, 2010.This is the Fig. 1 legend. Created with the ArcGIS 10.0 software. Notes: Figures shown in bars of the map were calculated based on 2010 China Census data, and measured in 1,000 persons for population and Chinese yuan for per capita GDP (USD 1 = RMB 6.77 yuan, the annual average exchange rate in 2010). First-tier cities include three provincial capitals (Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing), each with a population of 5 million or more. Second-tier cities are large-scale cities with a population of 3–5 million, which includes three cities (Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo). Third-tier cities are medium-scale cities with a population of 1–3 million, including Taizhou (Zhejiang), Shaoxing, Nantong, Changzhou, Jiaxing, and Zhenjiang. Fourth-tier cities are the relatively small-scale cities of Yangzhou, Huzhou, Zhoushan, and Taizhou (Jiangsu).

Mentions: The YRD (located within E118º20′-122º46′, N28º2′-33º25′) is one of the most populous and developed regions of China and one of six megalopolitan regions in the world. The 16 major cities in the region can be classified into four tiers, grouped in terms of their population size, economic output, and roles in the national and regional economy [34] (Fig. 1). The three cities under study—Nanjing (with a population of 6.32 million), Ningbo (2.02 million), Changzhou (1.62 million)—are located at the First-, Second- and Third-tier panel, respectively. The delta area has the largest regional economic capacity in China, and its gross regional production (GRP) accounted for 17.6% (or 39,798.3 billion yuan, USD 1 = RMB 6.05 yuan as of 1 January 2014) of the national total GDP in 2010. During the first decade of the 21st century, urban built area, average household annual income, and average household living area increased substantially by 2.6, 1.9, and 0.7 times above their 2000 levels, respectively. Car-holding per 100 households increased by 17.1 times, rising from 0.98 to 17.8 cars over the same time. These tremendous changes could have a significant impact on the pattern and behavior of urban households’ energy consumption, aggravating household carbon emissions.


Urban household carbon emission and contributing factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

Xu X, Tan Y, Chen S, Yang G, Su W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Population and per capita GDP across 16 major cities in the Yangtze River Delta, 2010.This is the Fig. 1 legend. Created with the ArcGIS 10.0 software. Notes: Figures shown in bars of the map were calculated based on 2010 China Census data, and measured in 1,000 persons for population and Chinese yuan for per capita GDP (USD 1 = RMB 6.77 yuan, the annual average exchange rate in 2010). First-tier cities include three provincial capitals (Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing), each with a population of 5 million or more. Second-tier cities are large-scale cities with a population of 3–5 million, which includes three cities (Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo). Third-tier cities are medium-scale cities with a population of 1–3 million, including Taizhou (Zhejiang), Shaoxing, Nantong, Changzhou, Jiaxing, and Zhenjiang. Fourth-tier cities are the relatively small-scale cities of Yangzhou, Huzhou, Zhoushan, and Taizhou (Jiangsu).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401559&req=5

pone.0121604.g001: Population and per capita GDP across 16 major cities in the Yangtze River Delta, 2010.This is the Fig. 1 legend. Created with the ArcGIS 10.0 software. Notes: Figures shown in bars of the map were calculated based on 2010 China Census data, and measured in 1,000 persons for population and Chinese yuan for per capita GDP (USD 1 = RMB 6.77 yuan, the annual average exchange rate in 2010). First-tier cities include three provincial capitals (Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing), each with a population of 5 million or more. Second-tier cities are large-scale cities with a population of 3–5 million, which includes three cities (Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo). Third-tier cities are medium-scale cities with a population of 1–3 million, including Taizhou (Zhejiang), Shaoxing, Nantong, Changzhou, Jiaxing, and Zhenjiang. Fourth-tier cities are the relatively small-scale cities of Yangzhou, Huzhou, Zhoushan, and Taizhou (Jiangsu).
Mentions: The YRD (located within E118º20′-122º46′, N28º2′-33º25′) is one of the most populous and developed regions of China and one of six megalopolitan regions in the world. The 16 major cities in the region can be classified into four tiers, grouped in terms of their population size, economic output, and roles in the national and regional economy [34] (Fig. 1). The three cities under study—Nanjing (with a population of 6.32 million), Ningbo (2.02 million), Changzhou (1.62 million)—are located at the First-, Second- and Third-tier panel, respectively. The delta area has the largest regional economic capacity in China, and its gross regional production (GRP) accounted for 17.6% (or 39,798.3 billion yuan, USD 1 = RMB 6.05 yuan as of 1 January 2014) of the national total GDP in 2010. During the first decade of the 21st century, urban built area, average household annual income, and average household living area increased substantially by 2.6, 1.9, and 0.7 times above their 2000 levels, respectively. Car-holding per 100 households increased by 17.1 times, rising from 0.98 to 17.8 cars over the same time. These tremendous changes could have a significant impact on the pattern and behavior of urban households’ energy consumption, aggravating household carbon emissions.

Bottom Line: Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation.This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China.Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region--Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

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