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Virtual bystanders in a language lesson: examining the effect of social evaluation, vicarious experience, cognitive consistency and praising on students' beliefs, self-efficacy and anxiety in a virtual reality environment.

Qu C, Ling Y, Heynderickx I, Brinkman WP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior.Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs.Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interactive Intelligence Group, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Bystanders in a real world's social setting have the ability to influence people's beliefs and behavior. This study examines whether this effect can be recreated in a virtual environment, by exposing people to virtual bystanders in a classroom setting. Participants (n = 26) first witnessed virtual students answering questions from an English teacher, after which they were also asked to answer questions from the teacher as part of a simulated training for spoken English. During the experiment the attitudes of the other virtual students in the classroom was manipulated; they could whisper either positive or negative remarks to each other when a virtual student was talking or when a participant was talking. The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior. Furthermore, the experience of witnessing bystanders commenting negatively on the performance of other students raised the participants' heart rate when it was their turn to speak. Two-way interaction effects were also found on self-reported anxiety and self-efficacy. After witnessing bystanders' positive attitude towards peer students, participants' self-efficacy when answering questions received a boost when bystanders were also positive towards them, and a blow when bystanders reversed their attitude by being negative towards them. Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs. Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher. Together these findings show that virtual bystanders in a classroom can affect people's beliefs, anxiety and behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Participants’ heart rate when peers or participants were answering questions, including results of paired-samples t-tests (df = 24).
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pone.0125279.g009: Participants’ heart rate when peers or participants were answering questions, including results of paired-samples t-tests (df = 24).

Mentions: Means and standard deviations of heart rate and skin conductance are shown in Table 5. A repeated-measures univariate ANOVA was conducted using heart rate as dependent variable, and the phases of the lesson, the bystanders’ attitude towards virtual peer speakers and participants as independent variables. The results, given in Table 6, showed a significant effect for the phase on participants’ heart rate with an increase in participants’ heart rate in the second phase, where they answered questions. The analysis also found a two-way interaction effect between phase and bystanders’ attitude towards the virtual peer speakers, as also illustrated in Fig 9A. A significant increase in heart rate was found between the two phases only when in the first phase the participants observed a negative instead of positive attitude towards the virtual peers, t(24) = 3.10, p = .005, d = 0.63. If they first observed a positive attitude towards the virtual peers no significant difference was found between the two phases, t(24) = 1.54, p = .14, d = 0.31.


Virtual bystanders in a language lesson: examining the effect of social evaluation, vicarious experience, cognitive consistency and praising on students' beliefs, self-efficacy and anxiety in a virtual reality environment.

Qu C, Ling Y, Heynderickx I, Brinkman WP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Participants’ heart rate when peers or participants were answering questions, including results of paired-samples t-tests (df = 24).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401547&req=5

pone.0125279.g009: Participants’ heart rate when peers or participants were answering questions, including results of paired-samples t-tests (df = 24).
Mentions: Means and standard deviations of heart rate and skin conductance are shown in Table 5. A repeated-measures univariate ANOVA was conducted using heart rate as dependent variable, and the phases of the lesson, the bystanders’ attitude towards virtual peer speakers and participants as independent variables. The results, given in Table 6, showed a significant effect for the phase on participants’ heart rate with an increase in participants’ heart rate in the second phase, where they answered questions. The analysis also found a two-way interaction effect between phase and bystanders’ attitude towards the virtual peer speakers, as also illustrated in Fig 9A. A significant increase in heart rate was found between the two phases only when in the first phase the participants observed a negative instead of positive attitude towards the virtual peers, t(24) = 3.10, p = .005, d = 0.63. If they first observed a positive attitude towards the virtual peers no significant difference was found between the two phases, t(24) = 1.54, p = .14, d = 0.31.

Bottom Line: The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior.Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs.Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interactive Intelligence Group, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Bystanders in a real world's social setting have the ability to influence people's beliefs and behavior. This study examines whether this effect can be recreated in a virtual environment, by exposing people to virtual bystanders in a classroom setting. Participants (n = 26) first witnessed virtual students answering questions from an English teacher, after which they were also asked to answer questions from the teacher as part of a simulated training for spoken English. During the experiment the attitudes of the other virtual students in the classroom was manipulated; they could whisper either positive or negative remarks to each other when a virtual student was talking or when a participant was talking. The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior. Furthermore, the experience of witnessing bystanders commenting negatively on the performance of other students raised the participants' heart rate when it was their turn to speak. Two-way interaction effects were also found on self-reported anxiety and self-efficacy. After witnessing bystanders' positive attitude towards peer students, participants' self-efficacy when answering questions received a boost when bystanders were also positive towards them, and a blow when bystanders reversed their attitude by being negative towards them. Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs. Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher. Together these findings show that virtual bystanders in a classroom can affect people's beliefs, anxiety and behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus