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Virtual bystanders in a language lesson: examining the effect of social evaluation, vicarious experience, cognitive consistency and praising on students' beliefs, self-efficacy and anxiety in a virtual reality environment.

Qu C, Ling Y, Heynderickx I, Brinkman WP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior.Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs.Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interactive Intelligence Group, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Bystanders in a real world's social setting have the ability to influence people's beliefs and behavior. This study examines whether this effect can be recreated in a virtual environment, by exposing people to virtual bystanders in a classroom setting. Participants (n = 26) first witnessed virtual students answering questions from an English teacher, after which they were also asked to answer questions from the teacher as part of a simulated training for spoken English. During the experiment the attitudes of the other virtual students in the classroom was manipulated; they could whisper either positive or negative remarks to each other when a virtual student was talking or when a participant was talking. The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior. Furthermore, the experience of witnessing bystanders commenting negatively on the performance of other students raised the participants' heart rate when it was their turn to speak. Two-way interaction effects were also found on self-reported anxiety and self-efficacy. After witnessing bystanders' positive attitude towards peer students, participants' self-efficacy when answering questions received a boost when bystanders were also positive towards them, and a blow when bystanders reversed their attitude by being negative towards them. Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs. Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher. Together these findings show that virtual bystanders in a classroom can affect people's beliefs, anxiety and behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of the participants’ self-related belief and experience questionnaire, and self-reported anxiety, including results of paired t-tests (df = 25).
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pone.0125279.g004: Results of the participants’ self-related belief and experience questionnaire, and self-reported anxiety, including results of paired t-tests (df = 25).

Mentions: Mean and standard deviation of the 18 dependent variables for the four conditions are shown in Table 3. Table 4 shows the results of 18 univariate repeated-measure ANOVAs on BEQ and self-reported anxiety. The first group of BEQ items (P1—P8) was about beliefs related to participants. The bystanders’ positive attitude towards the participant compared to the conditions where the bystanders exhibited a negative attitude towards the participant, resulted in participants believing that peers and teacher were significantly more satisfied with their performance (P3 and P4) and liked them significantly more (P5 and P6), and resulted for the participants in a significantly more positive lesson experience (P7) and significantly more self-efficacy (P8). Although no significant effect for the bystanders’ attitude on self-perceived performance (P1) and on the participants’ satisfaction with their own performance (P2) was found, the p-value of 0.067 for the self-perceived performance (P1) approached the significant threshold of α = 0.05. The two-way interaction found by the overall analysis for first and second hypothesis was found back in the univariate analysis of the reported self-efficacy (P8), as illustrated in Fig 4. When initially the bystanders showed a positive attitude towards the virtual peer speakers, the participants’ self-efficacy was significantly (t(25) = 3.72, p = .001, d = 0.73) lower if the bystanders’ attitude became negative instead of remaining positive when the participant was talking. However, when the bystanders initially showed a negative attitude towards the virtual peer speakers, no significant difference (t(25) = 1.71, p = .099, d = 0.34) was found in participants’ self-efficacy between conditions where the bystanders remained exhibiting a negative attitude or changed into exhibiting a positive attitude when the participant was talking.


Virtual bystanders in a language lesson: examining the effect of social evaluation, vicarious experience, cognitive consistency and praising on students' beliefs, self-efficacy and anxiety in a virtual reality environment.

Qu C, Ling Y, Heynderickx I, Brinkman WP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Results of the participants’ self-related belief and experience questionnaire, and self-reported anxiety, including results of paired t-tests (df = 25).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401547&req=5

pone.0125279.g004: Results of the participants’ self-related belief and experience questionnaire, and self-reported anxiety, including results of paired t-tests (df = 25).
Mentions: Mean and standard deviation of the 18 dependent variables for the four conditions are shown in Table 3. Table 4 shows the results of 18 univariate repeated-measure ANOVAs on BEQ and self-reported anxiety. The first group of BEQ items (P1—P8) was about beliefs related to participants. The bystanders’ positive attitude towards the participant compared to the conditions where the bystanders exhibited a negative attitude towards the participant, resulted in participants believing that peers and teacher were significantly more satisfied with their performance (P3 and P4) and liked them significantly more (P5 and P6), and resulted for the participants in a significantly more positive lesson experience (P7) and significantly more self-efficacy (P8). Although no significant effect for the bystanders’ attitude on self-perceived performance (P1) and on the participants’ satisfaction with their own performance (P2) was found, the p-value of 0.067 for the self-perceived performance (P1) approached the significant threshold of α = 0.05. The two-way interaction found by the overall analysis for first and second hypothesis was found back in the univariate analysis of the reported self-efficacy (P8), as illustrated in Fig 4. When initially the bystanders showed a positive attitude towards the virtual peer speakers, the participants’ self-efficacy was significantly (t(25) = 3.72, p = .001, d = 0.73) lower if the bystanders’ attitude became negative instead of remaining positive when the participant was talking. However, when the bystanders initially showed a negative attitude towards the virtual peer speakers, no significant difference (t(25) = 1.71, p = .099, d = 0.34) was found in participants’ self-efficacy between conditions where the bystanders remained exhibiting a negative attitude or changed into exhibiting a positive attitude when the participant was talking.

Bottom Line: The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior.Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs.Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interactive Intelligence Group, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Bystanders in a real world's social setting have the ability to influence people's beliefs and behavior. This study examines whether this effect can be recreated in a virtual environment, by exposing people to virtual bystanders in a classroom setting. Participants (n = 26) first witnessed virtual students answering questions from an English teacher, after which they were also asked to answer questions from the teacher as part of a simulated training for spoken English. During the experiment the attitudes of the other virtual students in the classroom was manipulated; they could whisper either positive or negative remarks to each other when a virtual student was talking or when a participant was talking. The results show that the expressed attitude of virtual bystanders towards the participants affected their self-efficacy, and their avoidance behavior. Furthermore, the experience of witnessing bystanders commenting negatively on the performance of other students raised the participants' heart rate when it was their turn to speak. Two-way interaction effects were also found on self-reported anxiety and self-efficacy. After witnessing bystanders' positive attitude towards peer students, participants' self-efficacy when answering questions received a boost when bystanders were also positive towards them, and a blow when bystanders reversed their attitude by being negative towards them. Still, inconsistency, instead of consistency, between the bystanders' attitudes towards virtual peers and the participants was not found to result in a larger change in the participants' beliefs. Finally the results also reveal that virtual flattering or destructive criticizing affected the participants' beliefs not only about the virtual bystanders, but also about the neutral teacher. Together these findings show that virtual bystanders in a classroom can affect people's beliefs, anxiety and behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus