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Cold-induced vasodilation during single digit immersion in 0°C and 8°C water in men and women.

Tyler CJ, Reeve T, Cheung SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Females reported feeling higher thermal sensations in 8°C and lower pain sensations in 0°C and 8°C compared to males.Fewer CIVD responses were observed when using a 4°C (1 (0-3)) threshold to quantify a CIVD wave compared to using a 1°C (2 (0-3)) or 0.5°C (2 (0-3)) amplitude.In conclusion, both 0 and 8 °C can elicit CIVD but 8°C may be more suitable when looking to optimise the number of CIVD waves while minimising participant discomfort.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The present study compared the thermal responses of the finger to 0 and 8°C water immersion, two commonly used temperatures for cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) research. On two separate and counterbalanced occasions 15 male and 15 female participants immersed their index finger in 20°C water for 5 min followed by either 0 or 8°C water for 30 min. Skin temperature, cardiovascular and perceptual data were recorded. Secondary analyses were performed between sexes and comparing 0.5, 1 and 4°C CIVD amplitude thresholds. With a 0.5°C threshold, CIVD waves were more prevalent in 8°C (2 (1-3) than in 0°C (1.5 (0-3)), but the amplitude was lower (4.0 ± 2.3 v 9.2 ± 4.0°C). Mean, minimum and maximum finger temperatures were lower in 0°C during the 30 min immersion, and CIVD onset and peak time occurred later in 0°C. Thermal sensation was lower and pain sensation was higher in 0°C. There were no differences between males and females in any of the physiological or CIVD data with the exception of SBP, which was higher in males. Females reported feeling higher thermal sensations in 8°C and lower pain sensations in 0°C and 8°C compared to males. Fewer CIVD responses were observed when using a 4°C (1 (0-3)) threshold to quantify a CIVD wave compared to using a 1°C (2 (0-3)) or 0.5°C (2 (0-3)) amplitude. In conclusion, both 0 and 8 °C can elicit CIVD but 8°C may be more suitable when looking to optimise the number of CIVD waves while minimising participant discomfort. The CIVD response to water immersion does not appear to be influenced by sex. Researchers should consider the amplitude threshold that was used to determine a CIVD wave when interpreting previous data.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Median (range) pain sensation during immersion and recovery.Dashed line = 8°C trial; solid line = 0°C trial.
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pone.0122592.g004: Median (range) pain sensation during immersion and recovery.Dashed line = 8°C trial; solid line = 0°C trial.

Mentions: Perceptual data are shown in Figs 3 and 4. TS was lower (Mdn = 2 (0–5) v 3 (0.5–5); z = -7.4, p < 0.001, r = -1.35) and PS was higher (Mdn = 3 (0–9) v 1 (0–7); z = -10.8, p < 0.001, r = -2.0) in 0°C compared to 8°C. Perceptual data changed over time (TS: χ27 = 247, p < 0.001; PS: χ27 = 226, p < 0.001)). For TS all time-point comparisons with the exception of 0 v 35 min (p = 0.05); 15 v 10 (p = 0.06), 20 (p = 0.31), 25 min (p = 0.33) and 30 min (p = 0.06); 20 v 25 (p = 0.85) and 30 min (p = 0.24); and 25 v 30 min (p = 0.18) were significantly different from one another (p < 0.001–0.01). For PS all time-point comparisons with the exception of 5 v 10 min (p = 0.62); 15 v 10 (p = 0.06) and 20 min (p = 0.23); and 20 v 25 min (p = 0.18) were significantly different from one another (exact p < 0.001–0.04). TS did not differ between sexes in 0°C (Mdn = 2 (0–5) for both; z = -0.07, p = 0.95) but was higher in 8°C in female (3.0 (0.5–5) compared to male (2.5 (1–5) participants (z = -2.1, p = 0.03, r = -0.39). PS was lower in female participants in 0°C (3.0 (0–9) v 3.8 (0–9); z = -2.9, p = 0.004, r = -0.53) and 8°C (0.0 (0–5) v 1.8 (0–7); z = -5.3, p < 0.001, r = -0.97). There was a high-strength, positive correlation between TS and finger temperature (τ = 0.55, p < 0.001) and high-strength, negative correlations between PS and finger temperature (τ = -0.51, p < 0.001) and between PS and TS (τ = -0.63, p < 0.001).


Cold-induced vasodilation during single digit immersion in 0°C and 8°C water in men and women.

Tyler CJ, Reeve T, Cheung SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Median (range) pain sensation during immersion and recovery.Dashed line = 8°C trial; solid line = 0°C trial.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4401544&req=5

pone.0122592.g004: Median (range) pain sensation during immersion and recovery.Dashed line = 8°C trial; solid line = 0°C trial.
Mentions: Perceptual data are shown in Figs 3 and 4. TS was lower (Mdn = 2 (0–5) v 3 (0.5–5); z = -7.4, p < 0.001, r = -1.35) and PS was higher (Mdn = 3 (0–9) v 1 (0–7); z = -10.8, p < 0.001, r = -2.0) in 0°C compared to 8°C. Perceptual data changed over time (TS: χ27 = 247, p < 0.001; PS: χ27 = 226, p < 0.001)). For TS all time-point comparisons with the exception of 0 v 35 min (p = 0.05); 15 v 10 (p = 0.06), 20 (p = 0.31), 25 min (p = 0.33) and 30 min (p = 0.06); 20 v 25 (p = 0.85) and 30 min (p = 0.24); and 25 v 30 min (p = 0.18) were significantly different from one another (p < 0.001–0.01). For PS all time-point comparisons with the exception of 5 v 10 min (p = 0.62); 15 v 10 (p = 0.06) and 20 min (p = 0.23); and 20 v 25 min (p = 0.18) were significantly different from one another (exact p < 0.001–0.04). TS did not differ between sexes in 0°C (Mdn = 2 (0–5) for both; z = -0.07, p = 0.95) but was higher in 8°C in female (3.0 (0.5–5) compared to male (2.5 (1–5) participants (z = -2.1, p = 0.03, r = -0.39). PS was lower in female participants in 0°C (3.0 (0–9) v 3.8 (0–9); z = -2.9, p = 0.004, r = -0.53) and 8°C (0.0 (0–5) v 1.8 (0–7); z = -5.3, p < 0.001, r = -0.97). There was a high-strength, positive correlation between TS and finger temperature (τ = 0.55, p < 0.001) and high-strength, negative correlations between PS and finger temperature (τ = -0.51, p < 0.001) and between PS and TS (τ = -0.63, p < 0.001).

Bottom Line: Females reported feeling higher thermal sensations in 8°C and lower pain sensations in 0°C and 8°C compared to males.Fewer CIVD responses were observed when using a 4°C (1 (0-3)) threshold to quantify a CIVD wave compared to using a 1°C (2 (0-3)) or 0.5°C (2 (0-3)) amplitude.In conclusion, both 0 and 8 °C can elicit CIVD but 8°C may be more suitable when looking to optimise the number of CIVD waves while minimising participant discomfort.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The present study compared the thermal responses of the finger to 0 and 8°C water immersion, two commonly used temperatures for cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) research. On two separate and counterbalanced occasions 15 male and 15 female participants immersed their index finger in 20°C water for 5 min followed by either 0 or 8°C water for 30 min. Skin temperature, cardiovascular and perceptual data were recorded. Secondary analyses were performed between sexes and comparing 0.5, 1 and 4°C CIVD amplitude thresholds. With a 0.5°C threshold, CIVD waves were more prevalent in 8°C (2 (1-3) than in 0°C (1.5 (0-3)), but the amplitude was lower (4.0 ± 2.3 v 9.2 ± 4.0°C). Mean, minimum and maximum finger temperatures were lower in 0°C during the 30 min immersion, and CIVD onset and peak time occurred later in 0°C. Thermal sensation was lower and pain sensation was higher in 0°C. There were no differences between males and females in any of the physiological or CIVD data with the exception of SBP, which was higher in males. Females reported feeling higher thermal sensations in 8°C and lower pain sensations in 0°C and 8°C compared to males. Fewer CIVD responses were observed when using a 4°C (1 (0-3)) threshold to quantify a CIVD wave compared to using a 1°C (2 (0-3)) or 0.5°C (2 (0-3)) amplitude. In conclusion, both 0 and 8 °C can elicit CIVD but 8°C may be more suitable when looking to optimise the number of CIVD waves while minimising participant discomfort. The CIVD response to water immersion does not appear to be influenced by sex. Researchers should consider the amplitude threshold that was used to determine a CIVD wave when interpreting previous data.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus